The Civilization of the G reeks. 431 BCE: Period of Warring States in China and beginning of Peloponnesian War between Athens and Sparta Pericles Funeral Oration: democracy and importance of the individual
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Pericles Funeral Oration: democracy and importance of the individual
Greeks questioned the world around them and created system of logical, analytical thought to examine
8th c BCE city-state (polis) emerged
Classical era= 5th c. BCE
Ultimately defeated by Philip II of Macedonia, but Greek culture continued to spread by Alexander the Great
(Hellenic “Greek” vs. Hellenistic “Greek-like” culture)
Mediterranean Sea was Key
Sparta on Peloponnesus
Athens on Attica PeninsulaEarly Greece
earliest civilization in Aegean region on island of Crete around 2800 BCE
Homer – Iliad and OdysseyThe Greeks in a Dark Age (c. 1100-750BCE)
What were the chief features of the polis, or city – state, and how did Athens and Sparta differ?
Tyranny in the Greek PolisGreek tyrants came to power in an unconstitutional way (usurpers of power)…support for tyrants mostly came from new rich and poorOligarchies “rule by small group of wealthy people”Common transition of power in Athens: monarchy-oligarchy-tyranny-democracy
Greeks versus Persians, Greeks saw the struggle with the Persians was a contest between freedom and slavery
Classical style- reason, moderation, symmetry, balance, and harmony in all things
Parthenon: ideal classical style
Philosophy= Greek word meaning “Love of Wisdom”
Sophists: group of philosophers in the 5th century BCE – believed in relative truth and that understanding the universe was beyond the reach of the human mind…importance of rhetoric…”true wisdom consisted of being able to perceive and pursue one’s own good”
Socrates: believed in absolute truth…Socratic Method…believed all knowledge is within each person, only critical examination was needed to call it forth…sentenced to death for corrupting the youth
3 orders of columns: Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian
Plato: student of Socrates…how do we know what is real? The objects that we perceive with our senses are simply reflections of the ideal Forms.