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The Roman Empire Brings Change. Section 2. Problems in the Republic. Rome’s constant expansion, increasing wealth and the Punic wars brought many problems to the Republic. The gap between the rich and poor was widening.

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problems in the republic
Problems in the Republic
  • Rome’s constant expansion, increasing wealth and the Punic wars brought many problems to the Republic.
  • The gap between the rich and poor was widening.
  • Rich landowners used the people captured during war as slaves to work on their large estates.
    • By 100 B.C.E slaves made up one third of Rome’s population.
  • Small farmers could not compete with the larger farms that used slave labor and most ended up selling their land to the wealthy farmer and searching for urban work.
the republic collapses
The Republic Collapses
  • Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus made reforms for the poor to prevent the collapse of the Republic.
    • Limited the size of estates and gave land to the poor.
  • Civil War broke out after their deaths
    • Marius and Sulla (88-82 B.C.): 2 generals who used citizen soldiers to take control.
    • Sulla was named dictator.
    • There was constant rivalries between generals fighting for control until Julius Caesar emerged and brought order to Rome
julius caesar
Julius Caesar
  • Joined forces with Crassus, and Pompey (60 B.C.)- triumvirate (A group of 3 rulers)
  • Civil war: Pompey was afraid of Julius Caesar’s military success and urged the Senate to order him to disband his legions.
    • Pompey was Caesar’s political rival.
    • 46 B.C.E-Caesar defeated Pompey, marched on Rome and the Senate appointed him dictator of Rome.
    • 44 B.C.E.- Caesar was appointed dictator for life.
  • He governed as an absolute ruler- granted more people citizenship, expanded Senate, created jobs
  • Assassination- March 15, 44 B. C.
second triumvirate
Second Triumvirate
  • Took control after Julius Caesar’s death.
    • Octavian, Mark Antony, Lepidus
  • Soon rivalries surfaced between the Second Triumvirate.
    • Octavian forced Lepidus to retire and began to fight with Mark Antony.
  • Octavian defeated Mark Antony and Cleopatra in the Battle of Actium in 31 B.C.E.
    • He claimed he would restore the republic.
    • He continued to allow the Senate to meet and consulted them on important issues, but he was the unchallenged ruler of Rome.
augustus
Augustus
  • Octavian took the title of Augustus.
    • “Exalted One”- ruled by one man
  • During his rule the empire went through a time of peace and prosperity called: PaxRomana
  • It was based on:
    • Agriculture
    • Trading network: Naval and

land trading routes

slide7

Augustus was the most able emperor.

    • Stabilized the empire and built beautiful government buildings to glorify Rome.
  • Augustus set up a civil service.
    • Paid people to manage governmental affairs.
five good emperors
Five Good Emperors
  • For Rome to continue to be prosperous there needed to be an orderly transfer of power.
  • During the reign of the 5 good emperors successors were chosen because they had the support of both the army and the people
  • 1st-Nerva 96 A.D.
  • 5th- Marcus Aurelius 180 A.D.
roman society
Roman Society
  • Family: paterfamilias “father of the family” controlled the property and family
  • Roman Women-socially equal to men.
    • Could own property and testify in court. Could not vote.
  • Education: usually only boys from upper class families received formal education which stopped at the age of 16.
  • Slavery:
    • Made up 1/3 of the pop.
    • Could be punished, rewarded

or killed as the master saw fit.

    • Gladiators: professional fighters

who fought to the death in public contests.

bread and circuses
“Bread and Circuses”
  • There was a very large gap between the rich and the poor.
  • The poor had to be supported with grain rations in order to survive.
  • In order to distract the poor from the bad conditions they entertained them with free games, races, mock battles and gladiator fights.