The Roman Empire. Mr. Giesler Global Studies. The Legend of Romulus and Remus. 750 BCE Romulus and Remus were twin brothers Abandoned by their parents as babies and put into a basket that was then placed into the River Tiber. Twins discovered by a female wolf.
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The Roman Empire Mr. Giesler Global Studies
The Legend of Romulus and Remus • 750 BCE • Romulus and Remus were twin brothers • Abandoned by their parents as babies and put into a basket that was then placed into the River Tiber. • Twins discovered by a female wolf. • Wolf nursed the babies for a short time before they were found by a shepherd. • The shepherd then raised the twins.
The legend of Romulus and Remus • When Romulus and Remus became adults, they discovered a city where the wolf had found them. • The brothers quarreled over where the site should be and Remus was killed by his brother. • This left Romulus the sole founder of the new city and he gave his name to it – Rome. • The date given for the founding of Rome is 753 BC.
The First Romans • The early people of Rome were from a tribe called Latins • Latins, Greeks, and Etruscans compete for control of the region. • Latins found original settlement of Rome between 1000 B.C. and 500 B.C. • Etruscans native to northern Italy influence Roman civilization
The Origins of Rome • Rome’s Geography • Site of Rome chosen for its fertile soil and strategic location • Located on Italian Peninsula in the center of the Mediterranean Sea. • Built on seven hills along Tiber River • Middle of the Mediterranean • Larger and more arable land than Greece- Mts. north and south • River valleys- Po in the North, Tiber in middle of boot • Rome - inland accessible by boat- defensible, on “Seven Hills”
The Founding of Rome • Romans shared the Italian peninsula with other peoples, namely the Greek and the Etruscans, who lived north of Rome • The Etruscans ruled much of central Italy, including Rome • Romans learned the alphabet from the Etruscans
Rome Conquers Italy • The Romans defeat the Etruscans in the north and the Greek city-states in the south. • By 265 B.C., Rome controls the entire Italian peninsula. • Rome treats the conquered peoples justly. This enables Rome to grow. • Determined never to be ruled by a monarch, Rome set up a new government • A Republic • Romans believed that a Republic would keep any one individual from gaining too much power.
The Roman Republic: 509 BCE- 27 BCE • Patricians and Plebeians • Different groups struggle for power in early Roman Republic • Patricians—wealthy landowning class that holds most of the power • Plebeians—artisans, merchants and farmers; can vote, but cannot rule • Tribunes—elected representatives who protect Plebeians’ rights
The Roman Republic: 509 BCE- 27 BCE • Twelve Tables • In 451 B.C. officials carve Roman laws on twelve tablets. • Called the Twelve Tables, they become the basis for later Roman law. • Providing political and socialrights for the plebeians. • Laws confirm the right of all free citizens to the protection of the law. • Citizenship is limited to adult male landowners. • The Twelve Tables are hung in the Forum
A Republican Government 2 Consuls (Rulers of Rome) Senate (Representative body for patricians) Tribal Assembly (Representative body for plebeians) More than 2,000 years later, the framers of the United States Constitution would adapt such ideas as the senate, the veto, and checks and balances to organize our government
The Early Republic • The Roman Army • Roman legion—military unit of 5,000 infantry, supported by cavalry. • Army is powerful and a key factor in Rome’s rise to greatness. • Early in the life of the Empire, Army was well-trained and disciplined. Near the end – not so much
Conquered Lands • Treated defeated enemies with justice • Must acknowledge Roman leadership • Pay taxes • Supply soldiers • Kept own traditions and cultures • Retain own local government • Privileged were given cull citizenship
Problems with Carthage: The Punic Wars • The First Punic War • Carthage had, in the 260s, control of much of Sicily. • Internal dispute within the city of Messana pitted Carthage against Rome • Rome forces the Punic (the Roman word for Carthaginian) fleet to withdraw • Carthage responds, Rome responds, armies get bigger, Rome matches • Last for 20 years • Peace Treaty; Carthage loses Sicily; heavy indemnification
Problems with Carthage: The Punic Wars • The Second Punic War • Carthage: Fight or Die • HamilcarBarca • Vowed to avenge the loss although he • doubted he would live long enough to • see Carthage rise again • The birth of Hannibal • Hamilcar Dies HamilcarBarca
Problems with Carthage: The Punic Wars • The Second Punic War • Hannibal was determined to fight Rome • Rome's great strength was her nearly endless reserves of manpower, but they were unhappy because of endless wars • Hannibal attacks Italy • Everything depended on those two elements: early and convincing victories, and the defection of the Italian allies. Hannibal was gambling everything on these. • Hannibal Crosses the Alps • Roman Historian, Livy provides us with the greatest account of the Second Punic War
Problems with Carthage: The Punic Wars • The Second Punic War • Hannibal had to fight his way through Italy • The losses at the Trebbia River and Lake Trasimine • Battle of Cannae • The Battle of Cannae has served as a classic example of a double-envelopment maneuver, a way for an inferior force to defeat a superior force on open terrain. Hannibal's tactics at Cannae are still studied in military academies.
Problems with Carthage: The Punic Wars • The Second Punic War • In 202 BC Rome's second war with Carthage came to an end. Rome again forced Carthage to pay a terrible price: this time, Carthage had to give up her entire empire. Spain, the islands, North Africa, her navy, her army, all of it was either gone or drastically reduced • Hannibal in exile • TTYN: Name three lands that were part of the Roman Empire
Problems with Carthage: The Punic Wars • The Third Punic War • The Third Punic War was a brief… • barely a war • Despite all the penalties and all • the impediments, Carthage recovered economically. • Rome takes the fight to Carthage… • to destroy it once and for all • It ended and Carthage was destroyed Ruins of Carthage
From Republic to Empire • After Rome defeated Carthage, it seemed no Mediterranean force could stop Rome • Rome then launched a series of wars on the Eastern Med • Macedonia, Greece, and parts of Asia Minor surrendered and became roman provinces • Other regions allied w Rome • By 133BCE, Romans called the Mediterranean Mare Nostrum or “Our Sea”
From Republic to Empire • Imperialism • TTYN- What is imperialism? • Victory over Carthage gave Rome a taste of imperialism • wealth from plunder • slaves for cheap labor • new farm lands • control of trade routes • provinces for taxation • glory for generals
From Republic to Empire • Roman Imperialism brought with it a ser of growing problems that weakened the Republic • Growing gap between rich and poor • Slaves equals the decline of peasant farmers, which became landless urban poor • Breakdown in military order • Greed • Corruption
From Republic to Empire • Reform Movement • Tiberius Gracchus represented the interests of Rome's lower class and served as tribune. • His political goals were nothing more than to introduce certain reforms in order to take care of veteran soldiers and improve the quality of active soldiers. • Tiberius called for land redistribution in order to help Roman Veterans • Called for reform of laws against corruption and the extension of voting rights • Assassinated in 133BCE… His Land Act was law, but ignored • Gaius Gracchus continued his brother’s reforms • Assassinated in 122BC • TTYN: What do these reform movements tell us about the problems in Rome?
From Republic to Empire • Slave Revolt • Rome faced a series of slave revolts between 125-71BCe • Slaves represented 33% of the population • Rebellion led by the gladiator Spartacus • General Crassus put down the revolt • Lined the Appian Way with 6K crucified slaves
From Republic to Empire In 71 BC the Roman senate sent a large army to deal with Spartacus. Outnumbered, Spartacus' army was defeated at a place called Apulia. The 6,000 slaves who were taken prisoner were crucified along the Appian Way (the main road into Rome). Their bodies were left to hang on the crosses for several months as a warning to other slaves who might consider the possibility of rebelling against their Roman masters.
Julius Caesar • Born 100 BC into a prestigious family (clan). • Caesar progressed within the Roman political system • By 61-60 BC he served as governor of the Roman province of Spain. • Caesar made a pact with Pompey and Crassus • Appointed governor of Roman Gaul • Caesar returned to Italy, disregarding the authority of the senate and famously crossing the Rubicon river without disbanding his army
Julius Caesar • Caesar defeated the republican forces • Pompey, their leader, fled to Egypt where he was assassinated. Caesar followed him and became romantically involved with the Egyptian queen, Cleopatra • Caesar was now master of Rome and made himself consul and dictator. • He used his power to carry out much-needed reform, relieving debt, enlarging the empire
Julius Caesar • Dictatorship was always regarded a temporary position but in 44 BC, Caesar took it for life. • His success and ambition alienated strongly republican senators. • Caesar’s enemies were concerned that that he planned to make himself king • A group of these, led by Cassius and Brutus, assassinated Caesar on the Ides of March 44 BC. • This sparked the final round of civil wars that ended the Republic and brought about the elevation of Caesar's great nephew and designated heir, Octavian, as Augustus, the first emperor • Caesar’s death plunged Rome into a series of Civil Wars
The Rise of Octavian Augustus • Outlasts Marc Antony and Queen Cleopatra • The senate proclaims Octavian Augustus, or Exalted One ,and declared him princeps, or first citizen • Ruled from 31 BCE – 14AD • The Republic comes to an end • Firm and moderate policies • Rome climbs out of the Civil Wars • Initiates a stable government • Civil Service charged with enforcing laws • Men of talent, regardless of their class • Self-government throughout Rome (cities and provinces)
Augustus • Economic Reform • Fair tax code • census • Postal service • new coins to help trade to be more effective • Put the jobless to work building roads and temples • The Big Question – who would rule after his death???? • The death of an emperor often lead to intrigue and violence
Next In Line • In the line of succession …some were weak and some were just bad • Caligula and Nero – Evil, perhaps a little nuts • Legend has it, Caligula appointed his horse as consul • Nero persecuted Christians • Nero blamed for starting the great fire that destroyed much of Rome • The good – Hadrian • Codified Roman laws - same law for all the provinces • Soldiers built at wall in Britain to hold back attackers
PaxRomana • 200-year span (Augustus through Marcus Aurelius) • Romans entered a period of unprecedented military success. • Almost complete control of the Mediterranean world • Policy of relentless expansion and conquest • Growing Pains - faced increasing levels of disarray at home. • The cost of protecting the borders of the empire was enormous • Caused economic decline
PaxRomana • Romans used Greek models to create a distinctive urban architecture • Major aqueducts and the roads projects that tied the empire together. • An unusual degree of freedom • Aristocratic women gained privileges that allowed them to control their own wealth • Slaves were freed frequently enough that the overall number of slaves in Rome declined.
Roman Law • Commitment to the rule of law and to justice • Civil Law • Law of Nations, which covered the areas that Rome ruled • Merging Civil Law and Law of Nations – Unity • Basis for legal systems in Europe and Latin America • Equality before the law • Innocent until proven guilty • Face your accuser • Reasonable Doubt • Allow judges to interpret the laws
Rise of Christianity • Refer to our unit of Beliefs Systems • Quick Recap… • Jews and the Roman Empire • Gradually, Rome tolerated the varied religious traditions • By 63 BCE, Rome had conquered Palestine • Zealots called on Jews to revolt against the Roman’s and create their own Jewish State • Jews believed that a messiah, or savior sent by God, would soon appear to lead the Jewish people to freedom • Skip ahead to 313 AD, Constantine issued the Edict of Milan • Granted freedom of worship to all citizens of the Roman Empire • Emperor Theodosius made Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire
Achievement’s of the Roman’s Art – Although the Roman’s a great debt to the Greeks, the Roman’s adapted the realism of Hellenistic works, portraying their subjects with precise and immaculate detail. Architecture – Roman influence regarding building and structures spread throughout the world, which combined both Greek and Roman ideas. Engineering – Roads, buildings, aqueducts, and bridges All Roads Lead to Rome