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Chapter 6 The Roman Empire Brings Change. Section 2 Preview: In what ways do you think the Roman Empire affected western civilization?. Expansion Creates Problems in the Republic. Problems facing Rome -widening gap between rich and poor

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chapter 6 the roman empire brings change
Chapter 6 The Roman Empire Brings Change

Section 2

Preview: In what ways do you think the Roman Empire affected western civilization?

expansion creates problems in the republic
Expansion Creates Problems in the Republic

Problems facing Rome

-widening gap between rich and poor

-small farmers could not compete with estates run by slave labors

-landless and unskilled move to cities

-resentment grew among the poor

Rome’s class tensions lead to the republic’s downfall..

the republic collapses
The Republic Collapses

Civil War starts when two brothers, Tiberius and Gaius, who proposed reforms, were killed .

Military leaders became politically powerful

-Gaius Marius

-Lucius Cornelius Sulla

-Sulla named dictator ending the civil war

Rivalries between these two generals continued

julius caesar takes control
Julius Caesar Takes Control
  • Julius Caesar joins Crassus and Pompey.

- Caesar elected consul

- these men control Rome as a triumvirate.

  • Caesar appointed governor of Gaul.

-legions loyal and devoted to him

-Caesar ordered to disband legion and come home (Pompey fears Caesar’s success)

-Caesar disobeys, civil war starts, Pompey flees and Caesar defeats his army.

-Caesar appointed and named dictator for life.

caesar s reform and beginning of the empire
Caesar’s Reform and Beginning of the Empire

Caesar governed as an absolute ruler

-His reforms and ambitions upset the ruling class

-March 15, 44 B.C. Caesar assassinated.

Caesars death signals the end of the republic,

-Octavian, Mark Anthony, and Lepidus rule as the Second Triumvirate.

-Octavian will force Lepidus to retire.

-Mark Anthony meets and fall in love with Cleopatra

Octavian defeat Mark Anthony’s and Cleopatra's forces (They commit suicide)

Octavian –accepts title of Augustus “exalted one”. - kept the title imperator “supreme military commander” (emperor).

a vast and powerful empire
A Vast And Powerful Empire
  • For over 200 years, Rome enjoys a time of peace and prosperity based on agriculture and trade under the rule of Augustus as emperor.

-PaxRomana –”Roman peace”

  • By making provincial soldiers Roman citizens, the army helps to spread the Roman way of life.

Augustus establishes a civil service to administer the empire.

-Augustus’s successor was his adopted son, Tiberius

-some emperors were able and intelligent

-some cruel

-two, Caligula and Nero were either insane or unstable

Augustus’ system of government remained stable


Rome’s prosperity and peace depend on the orderly transfer of power.

-no written law for selecting a new emperor

The Five Good Emperors Three Bad Emperors

Nerva Caligula

Trajan Nero

Hadrian Domitian

Anotonius Pius

Murcus Aurelius-his death marked end of PaxRomana/beginning of empire’s decline

life in imperial rome
Life in Imperial Rome

Although men could control family affairs, men and women are nearly social equals.

Education is reserved for upper-class boys and not offered to girls or children of the poor.

Slaves, widely used in Roman life, are regarded as property and have no legal rights.

gladiators-slaves who were forced to fight to the death in public contest.

Rome adopts many Greek gods, and creates a strong link between religious and government.

To control the poor, Rome offers food and spectacles.

-people entertained in the Colosseum