Chapter 6 The Roman Empire Brings Change. Section 2 Preview: In what ways do you think the Roman Empire affected western civilization?. Expansion Creates Problems in the Republic. Problems facing Rome -widening gap between rich and poor
Preview: In what ways do you think the Roman Empire affected western civilization?
Problems facing Rome
-widening gap between rich and poor
-small farmers could not compete with estates run by slave labors
-landless and unskilled move to cities
-resentment grew among the poor
Rome’s class tensions lead to the republic’s downfall..
Civil War starts when two brothers, Tiberius and Gaius, who proposed reforms, were killed .
Military leaders became politically powerful
-Lucius Cornelius Sulla
-Sulla named dictator ending the civil war
Rivalries between these two generals continued
- Caesar elected consul
- these men control Rome as a triumvirate.
-legions loyal and devoted to him
-Caesar ordered to disband legion and come home (Pompey fears Caesar’s success)
-Caesar disobeys, civil war starts, Pompey flees and Caesar defeats his army.
-Caesar appointed and named dictator for life.
Caesar governed as an absolute ruler
-His reforms and ambitions upset the ruling class
-March 15, 44 B.C. Caesar assassinated.
Caesars death signals the end of the republic,
-Octavian, Mark Anthony, and Lepidus rule as the Second Triumvirate.
-Octavian will force Lepidus to retire.
-Mark Anthony meets and fall in love with Cleopatra
Octavian defeat Mark Anthony’s and Cleopatra's forces (They commit suicide)
Octavian –accepts title of Augustus “exalted one”. - kept the title imperator “supreme military commander” (emperor).
-PaxRomana –”Roman peace”
-Augustus’s successor was his adopted son, Tiberius
-some emperors were able and intelligent
-two, Caligula and Nero were either insane or unstable
Augustus’ system of government remained stable
-no written law for selecting a new emperor
The Five Good Emperors Three Bad Emperors
Murcus Aurelius-his death marked end of PaxRomana/beginning of empire’s decline
Although men could control family affairs, men and women are nearly social equals.
Education is reserved for upper-class boys and not offered to girls or children of the poor.
Slaves, widely used in Roman life, are regarded as property and have no legal rights.
gladiators-slaves who were forced to fight to the death in public contest.
Rome adopts many Greek gods, and creates a strong link between religious and government.
To control the poor, Rome offers food and spectacles.
-people entertained in the Colosseum