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Organic Chemistry. Organic Compounds. Covalently bonded compounds containing carbon, excluding carbonates and oxides Na 2 CO 3 , CO, CO 2 are inorganic Label the following compounds as organic or inorganic… H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 CO 2 CaCO 3 C 5 H 10. Hydrocarbons.

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organic compounds
Organic Compounds
  • Covalently bonded compounds containing carbon, excluding carbonates and oxides
    • Na2CO3, CO, CO2 are inorganic

Label the following compounds as organic or inorganic…

H2O

C6H12O6

CO2

CaCO3

C5H10

hydrocarbons
Hydrocarbons
  • Compounds composed of only carbon and hydrogen
    • Simplest type of organic compounds
properties of hydrocarbons
Properties of hydrocarbons
  • Carbon always forms 4 covalent bonds
    • Electrons are shared
  • Hydrocarbons are nonpolar molecules
    • Symmetrically shaped
  • Insoluble in water
    • Like dissolves like
  • Non-electrolytes
  • Low melting points and boiling points
    • Due to weak Van der Waal’s forces
  • Slow reaction rates
as the size of the hydrocarbon increases
As the size of the hydrocarbon increases…
  • Strength of Van der Waal’s forces increases
  • Melting and Boiling Points increases
  • Which has the highest melting point?
homologous series of hydrocarbons
Homologous Series of Hydrocarbons
  • Alkanes

-Saturated hydrocarbons (contain only single bonds)

-General formula CnH2n+2

-Names all end in –ane

homologous series of hydrocarbons1
Homologous Series of Hydrocarbons

2. Alkenes

-unsaturated hydrocarbons which contain 1 double bond

-general formula CnH2n

- names all end in –ene

-dienecontains 2 double bonds

homologous series of hydrocarbons2
Homologous Series of hydrocarbons

3. Alkynes

-unsaturated hydrocarbons which contain 1 triple bond

-general formula CnH2n-2

-names all end in -yne

Look at Table Q

homologous series of hydrocarbons3
Homologous series of hydrocarbons

4. Benzene

-cyclic (aromatic) family of hydrocarbons

- general formula CnH2n-6

aliphatic vs aromatic
Aliphatic vs. aromatic
  • Aliphatic hydrocarbons: hydrocarbons which do not contain a benzene ring
  • Aromatic hydrocarbons: hydrocarbons which do contain a benzene ring
  • Label the following as aliphatic or aromatic…
iupac nomenclature of hydrocarbons
IUPac nomenclature of hydrocarbons
  • Identify the longest continuous chain of carbon atoms and determine its name (Table P)
  • Add ending according to type of bonds (Table Q)
  • Number the carbon atoms in the chain beginning at the end closest to a branch
  • Name the hydrocarbon groups attached to the longest chain by adding –yl to the stem name. Indicate the point of attachment by the number of the carbon atoms to which the group is attached

Pentane

Parent Chain

1 2 3 4 5

Akyl Groups

name the following hydrocarbons
Name the following hydrocarbons

Number carbons on parent chain so that the alkyl group has the lowest number

If 2 or more of the same alkyl groups are present, use prefixes di, tri, tetra,…

For double and triple bonds, give location of such bond

Arrange alkyl groups in ABC order

sketch the following hydrocarbons
Sketch the following hydrocarbons
  • Octane
  • Pentyne
  • Ethane
  • Butene
  • 1, 3- butadiene
cycloalkanes
Cycloalkanes
  • Alkanes in which the carbon atoms are arranged in a ring, or cyclic, structure
formulas
Formulas
  • Molecular formulasshow the number of atoms in a single molecule
  • Structural formulasshow how the atoms are grouped in the molecule
  • Displayed formulasshow all the atoms and all the bonds
isomers
ISOmers
  • Compounds with the same molecular formulas but a different structural formula
types of isomers
Types of isomers
  • Structural Isomers have different molecular skeletons because the carbon chain is different
  • Geometric Isomers are composed of the same atoms bonded in the same order but with a different arrangement of atoms around a double bond
types of isomers1
Types of isomers
  • Positional Isomers form when another elements, such as oxygen or nitrogen, may occupy 2 or more positions in the molecule
  • Functional Isomers form when another element, such as oxygen or nitrogen, may bond in two or more different ways
functional groups
Functional groups
  • Is an atom or group of atoms that is responsible for the specific properties of an organic compound (Table R)
  • For most of these functional groups…..
    • Name organic compound regularly
    • Drop –e and add appropriate ending
alcohols
Alcohols
  • Organic compound containing one or more hydroxyl group (-OH)
  • Present in lipstick, lotion, and sometimes in alternative fuel sources
  • Not basic
  • Slightly polar
  • Name ends in -ol
monohydroxy alcohols
Monohydroxy alcohols
  • 1 –OH group
    • Primary- OH is attached to a carbon bonded to 1 other carbon
    • Secondary- OH is attached to a carbon bonded to 2 other carbons
    • Tertiary- OH is attached to a carbon bonded to 3 other carbons
dihydroxy trihydroxy alchols
Dihydroxy & Trihydroxyalchols
  • Dihydroxy alcohols
    • 2 –OH groups
    • End in -diol
  • Trihydroxy alcohols
    • 3 –OH groups
    • End in -triol
halides
Halides
  • Organic compounds in which one or more halogen atoms- chlorine, fluorine, bromine, iodine
  • Use prefix fluoro-, chloro-, bromo-, iodo-
aldehyde
Aldehyde
  • Organic compounds in which the carbonyl group is attached to a carbon atom at the end of a chain
  • Name ends in -al
ketone
Ketone
  • Organic compounds in which the carbonyl group is attached to carbon atoms within the chain
  • Ends in -one
carboxylic acid
Carboxylic acid
  • Organic compounds that contain the carboxyl functional group
  • Weak acids
  • End in –oic acid
ether
Ether
  • Organic compounds in which 2 hydrocarbon groups are bonded to the same atom of oxygen
  • Name as alkyl groups in ABC order followed by ether

CH3-O-CH2-CH3 CH3CH2-O-CH2CH3

If groups on both sides are the same, use prefix di-

ester
Ester
  • Organic compounds that have carboxylic acid groups in which the hydrogen of the hydroxyl group has been replaced by an alkyl group
  • Name alkyl group closest to oxygen then name other alkyl group with –oateending

CH3C-O-C7H14CH3

O

amine
Amine
  • Organic compounds that can be considered a derivation of ammonia (NH3)
  • Weak bases
  • Name ends in –amine
  • Primary amines: nitrogen atom bonded to one alkyl group and two hydrogen atoms
  • Secondary amines: nitrogen atom bonded to two alkyl groups and one hydrogen atom
  • Tertiary amines: nitrogen atom bonded to three alkyl groups and no hydrogen atoms
amide
Amide
  • Organic compound in which a carbonyl group is linked to a nitrogen atom
  • Weak bases
  • Names end in -amide
organic reactions
Organic reactions
  • Substitution
  • Addition
  • Esterification
  • Fermentation
  • Combustion
  • Polymerization
  • Saponification
substitution
Substitution
  • Replacing hydrogen on a saturated hydrocarbon with a halogen

HCl

addition
Addition
  • Adding hydrogens or halogens to unsaturated hydrocarbons by breaking the double or triple bonds
fermentation
Fermentation
  • Making ethanol

Yeast

combustion
Combustion
  • Burning hydrocarbons
polymerization
Polymerization
  • Connecting together many repeating units
saponification
Saponification
  • Hydrolysis of fat by a base
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