DIGITAL RADIOGRAPHY - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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DIGITAL RADIOGRAPHY
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DIGITAL RADIOGRAPHY

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  1. DIGITAL RADIOGRAPHY DA 105

  2. Dental Radiography • Questions • What equipment is used in digital radiography? • What types of digital imaging are available? • What are advantages and disadvantages of digital radiography?

  3. Basic Concepts • Used to record radiographic images • No film or processing chemistry is used • Uses an electronic sensor and computerized imaging system that produces x-ray images almost instantly on a computer monitor

  4. Terminology • Charge-coupled device • Digital radiography • Digital subtraction • Digitize

  5. Terminology • Direct digital imaging • Indirect digital imaging • Pixel • Sensor • Storage phosphor imaging

  6. Purpose and Use • To generate images that can be used in the diagnosis and assessment of dental disease

  7. Purpose and Use • To detect lesions, diseases and conditions of the teeth and surrounding structures • To confirm or classify suspected disease • To provide information during dental procedures • To evaluate growth and development • To illustrate changes secondary to caries, periodontal disease, or trauma • To document the condition of a patient at a specific point in time

  8. Fundamentals • Digital radiography • A method of capturing a radiographic image using a sensor, breaking it into electronic pieces, and presenting and storing the image using a computer • Image is used to describe the pictures that are produced • A sensor is placed inside the mouth • The electronic signal is digitized

  9. Radiation Exposure • The typical sensor is more sensitive to x-rays than conventional film • Exposure times are 50% to 80% less than that required for conventional radiography using E-speed film

  10. Equipment • X-radiation source • Intraoral sensor • Charge-coupled device • Complementary metal oxide semiconductor/active pixel sensor • Charge injection device • Computer

  11. The radiographic image on the computer monitor is displayed as a normal periapical and a magnified version of the same image.

  12. Computer monitor illustrating a variety of images, including panoramic and cephalometric images

  13. X-Radiation Source • Most digital radiography systems use a conventional dental x-ray unit as the x-radiation source • The x-ray unit timer must be adapted to allow exposures in a time frame of 1/100 of a second

  14. A conventional source of x-radiation is compatible with digital imaging

  15. Intraoral Sensor • A small detector that is placed in the mouth of the patient and used to capture the radiographic image • Wired • The imaging sensor is linked by a fiber optic cable to a computer • Wireless • The imaging sensor is not linked by a cable

  16. An intraoral film is similar in size and shape to a sensor used in digital imaging

  17.   A wired intraoral sensor

  18. Intraoral Sensor • Three types of direct sensor technologies exist • Charge-coupled device • Complementary metal oxide semiconductor/active pixel sensor • Charge injection device

  19. Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) • The most common image receptor used in dental digital radiography • A solid-state detector that contains a silicon chip with an electronic circuit embedded in it • The electrons that make up the silicon CCD can be visualized as being divided into an arrangement of blocks or picture elements known as pixels • Pixel • A small box or “well” into which the electrons produced by the x-ray exposure are deposited

  20. Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) • The x-ray photons that come into contact with the CCD cause electrons to be released from the silicon and produce a corresponding electronic charge • Each pixel arrangement, or electron potential well, contains an electronic charge proportional to the number of electrons that reacted within the well • Each electronic well corresponds to a specific area on the linked computer screen

  21. Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor/Active Pixel Sensor (CMOS/APS) • Schick technologies uses a CMOS/APS sensor instead of a CCD • The chip is less expensive to produce and offers greater durability than the CCD

  22. Charge Injection Device (CID) • A silicon-based solid-state imaging receptor much like the CCD, but it is different structurally • No computer is required to process the image

  23. Computer • Used to store the incoming electronic signal • Converts the electronic signal from the sensor into a shade of gray that is viewed on the computer monitor • The computer digitizes, processes, and stores information received from the sensor • An image is recorded on a computer monitor in 0.5 to 120 seconds • Has split screen and magnification capability

  24. The image on the computer monitor can be manipulated to enhance density and contrast

  25. A periapical image is displayed on the computer monitor

  26. The image on the computer monitor reveals split-screen technology; two clinical views and two radiographic views are displayed simultaneously

  27. Types of Digital Imaging • Direct Digital Imaging • Indirect Digital Imaging • Storage Phosphor Imaging

  28. Direct Digital Imaging • Components include an x-ray machine, an intraoral sensor, and computer monitor • A sensor is placed into the mouth of the patient and exposed • The sensor captures the radiographic image and transmits it to the computer monitor • Software is used to enhance and store the image

  29. A film-holding device secures the wired sensor

  30. Indirect Digital Imaging • Components include a CCD camera and a computer • An existing x-ray film is digitized using a CCD camera • The image is displayed on a computer monitor

  31. Storage Phosphor Imaging • A wireless digital radiography system • A reusable imaging plate coated with phosphors is used instead of a sensor with a fiber optic cable • The phosphor-coated plates are flexible and fit into the mouth • A high-speed scanner is used to convert the information into electronic files • This type of digital imaging is less rapid than direct digital imaging

  32.   A storage phosphor imaging sensor in place within the film-holding device

  33. A storage phosphor imaging system, illustrating the laser scanning device and the intraoral and extraoral sensors; the resultant full mouth series is viewed on the computer monitor

  34. Step-by-Step Procedures • Sensor Preparation • Sensor Placement

  35. Step-by-Step Procedures • It is critical to refer to the manufacturer-provided instruction booklet for information concerning the operation of the system, equipment preparation, patient preparation, and exposure

  36. Sensor Preparation • Each sensor is sealed and waterproofed • The sensor must be covered with a disposable barrier because it cannot be sterilized

  37. Sensor Placement • The sensor is held in the mouth be bite-block attachments or devices that aim the beam and sensor accurately • The paralleling technique is the preferred exposure method

  38. The intraoral sensor, held by the film-holding device, allows the radiographer to use the paralleling technique for exposure

  39. Advantages of Digital Radiography • Superior gray-scale resolution • Reduced exposure to x-radiation • Increased speed of image viewing • Lower equipment and film cost • Increased efficiency • Enhancement of diagnostic image • Effective patient education tool

  40.  An image seen on the computer monitor reveals interproximal caries

  41. An image displays the feature of digital subtraction; the gray-scale is reversed

  42. Patient education may be easier when a patient can visualize images on a computer monitor

  43. Disadvantages of Digital Radiography • Initial set-up costs • Image quality • Sensor size • Infection control • Legal issues