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Unit 9: Unification & Politics of the 19 th Century (1815-1914). Goals of this Unit:. To understand the rise of nationalism primarily through the examples of Italy and Germany. To understand the impact of nationalism on multi-ethnic empires.
“The great questions of the day will not be decided by speeches and resolutions, that was the blunder of 1848 and 1849 – but by blood and iron.”
UNITE GERMAN STATES
Bismarck unites Germany in three steps…
power over Chancellor…
What empire was in their way in Northern Italy?
Things worked out well so Cavour
sets his sights on southern Italy.
What’s the problem?
Italy enters 20th century a
poor and struggling nation
Legislation can solve problems
Anti-Semitism has been nurtured by periods of social instability and crisis. Anger is deflected onto scapegoats such as an available, isolated minority such as the Jews
Devotion of Jews to their religion and special forms of worship were used as political discrimination; denied Roman citizenship
Crusades & Middle Ages
Jews massacred in great numbers; segregated into ghettoes and required to wear identifying garments
18th & 19th centuries – Enlightenment & FR
Increasing separation of church and state, rise of modern nation-states; Jews experienced less persecution and gradually integrated
Legal reforms changes things but racism persisted; political party platforms
Medieval traditions isolating Jews as an alien economic and social class solely for reasons of religion were never broken
Pogroms – a product of deliberate gov’t policy aimed at diverting the discontent of the workers & peasants in Russia
Who was Dreyfus?
Captain in the French army; one of the few Jewish officers
Accused of selling secrets to Germany
How can nationalism contribute to the growth of anti-Semitism?
1894 – charged with passing military secrets to the Germans based on handwritten evidence
Found guilty and sentenced to life in prison
Major Esterhazy was the real author; tried and acquitted in 1898
Emile Zola brought international attention to the case with J'accuse! in 1898
Case reopened in 1899 with new evidence
A hasty trial found him guilty again; sentenced to 10 years; pardoned by the President
Wasn’t officially exonerated until 1906
Strength of Anti-Semitism
Persecution of Jews was actually much worse in Eastern Europe
Zionist Movement 1890s
The movement to work for a separate homeland in Palestine
Theodor Herzel was the leader
WHAT IS THE PROBLEM WITH
REFORMS IN AN AUTOCRACY??
In 1914, Russia was partially modernized, a conservative constitutional monarchy with a peasant-based but industrializing economy.