unit 9 unification politics of the 19 th century 1815 1914 n.
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Unit 9: Unification & Politics of the 19 th Century (1815-1914). Goals of this Unit:. To understand the rise of nationalism primarily through the examples of Italy and Germany. To understand the impact of nationalism on multi-ethnic empires.

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goals of this unit
Goals of this Unit:
  • To understand the rise of nationalism primarily through the examples of Italy and Germany.
  • To understand the impact of nationalism on multi-ethnic empires.
  • To understand the social and political reforms that occurred in Great Britain those lead to a more democratic structure.
  • To understand the decline of France in the aftermath of the Franco-Prussian War.
  • To understand the changes that occurred in Imperial Russia under the Czars of the Mid to Late 19th Century.
germany before unification
Germany Before Unification
  • 39 States: The German Confederation
  • Two dominant states
    • Austria & Prussia
  • Prussia’s advantages
    • Mainly German population
    • Powerful Army
    • Industrialization
early action towards unification
Early Action towards Unification
  • Zollverein (1834): German customs union
    • Purpose was to stimulate trade, increase revenues of member states
      • Left out Austria – why?
      • Wanted to weaken Austria’s power over German states
      • Relationship between Austria and other states deteriorate
  • Frankfurt Assembly (1848)
    • Movement for German unification (excluding Austria) fails
  • Olmutz (1850)
    • Major European powers afraid of German unification
    • Prussia forced to give up unification plan and accept the renewed German Confederation, still dominated by Austria
      • Prussians refer to it as “Humiliation of Olmutz”
      • Move towards more liberal government under King William I (ruled 1861-1888)
william i bismarck
William I & Bismarck
  • William I: Conservative
    • Supported by Junkers (nobles)
    • Allowed liberals and moderates in government
    • Wanted to strengthen army and unify Germany
    • Liberals refused to approve army build-up
  • Calls upon Otto Von Bismarck for assistance in 1862 stalemate over budget
    • “Realpolitik” –politics through sheer force and power
      • To gain practical results, make no moral or ideological considerations – just do it
      • Ends justify the means
bismarck s realpolitik
Bismarck’s Realpolitik
  • Bismarck urges king to ignore the liberals in government
    • Enforce taxes, build army
  • Bismarck becomes leader of unification movement – named Prime Minister by William
  • Bismarck a master politician
    • Would wisely assess a political scene, used cleverness and force to accomplish goals

“The great questions of the day will not be decided by speeches and resolutions, that was the blunder of 1848 and 1849 – but by blood and iron.”

bismarck s main goal
Bismarck’s Main Goal:


Bismarck unites Germany in three steps…

step one
  • Create alliance with Austria
    • 1864 – Went to war with Denmark over bordering regions of Schleswig and Holstein
    • Prussia & Austria win in six weeks
      • Prussia got Schleswig
      • Austria got Holstein
    • Bismarck knew this arrangement would cause tension – Just what he wanted…


step two
  • Create conflict with Austria
    • Border conflicts between Prussia and Austria over Schleswig & Holstein
    • With war looming, Bismarck isolates Austria from allies
      • Convinces France to stay neutral
      • Promised Italy control of Venetia (still owned by Austria)
step two1
  • Lures Austria into war
  • Austro-Prussian War
    • “Seven Weeks War”
  • Prussia defeats Austria at Battle of Sadowa (July 1866)
  • Results of war:
    • Austria lost Venetia to Italy (who helped Prussia)
    • Prussia gained control of northern German states
step three
  • Needed the Catholics in the South to feel a sense of German nationalism
  • France was isolated by Bismarck’s diplomacy
  • “Ems Dispatch”
    • Bismarck altered a telegram sent from Prussia to France – outrages both nations
  • France declares war (1870)
step three1
  • Franco-Prussian War (1870)
  • France launches attack on southern German states
  • Outside attack stirred nationalism in south, desire for protection
  • Prussia sweeps down and defeats French at Battle of Sedan, Siege of Paris
  • French surrender
treaty of frankfurt 1871
Treaty of Frankfurt (1871)
  • France owes compensation, forfeits Alsace and part of Lorraine
  • Second Reich proclaimed
    • (First Reich refers to Holy Roman Empire)
  • William I crowned emperor of German Empire
the second reich
The Second Reich
  • King William I (AKA Kaiser Wilhelm I) from House of Hohenzollern
    • Hohenzollern monarch had ruled in Prussia and parts of Germany for centuries
  • Kaiser headed federal union, 26 states, 41 million in population
  • Bicameral legislature:
    • Bundersat (upper house)
    • Reichstag (lower house)
    • Legislature does not have

power over Chancellor…

chancellor otto von bismarck
Chancellor Otto Von Bismarck
  • Bismarck believes effective states have one faith, one law, one ruler
  • Distrusted Catholic Church, Socialist party
    • Launched: “Kulturkampf” – persecution against Catholics
    • Tried to suppress socialists, Socialist Democratic Party
      • Despite Bismarck’s anti-socialists laws, party gains popularity
    • Eventually compromised on both issues
new kaisers
New Kaisers
  • William I dies in 1888
  • His son, Frederick III is crowned new Kaiser
    • More open to socialist and liberal movements
    • Plans to apply more liberal ideas in Germany…
    • Dies of cancer after 3 months of ruling
  • His son, William II (AKA Wilhelm II) crowned new Kaiser rules from 1888-1918
    • Will be last of the Hohenzollern rulers by 1918
kaiser wilhelm ii
Kaiser Wilhelm II
  • New emperor lacked finesse, intelligence of father and grandfather
    • Resented Bismarck’s power, pressured him into retiring
  • Germany still progressed flourished
    • Highly competitive industry against Britain
    • Dominated world market in chemicals, electrical industries
    • High literacy, vocational training, government supported industry
decline of austria
Decline of Austria
  • Nationalism rising throughout empire
    • Problem for Austrians?
    • NOT Austrian nationalism: Hungarian, Polish, Romanian, German, Czech, Italian, Slovakian, etc.
  • Hungarians demanding equality with Vienna
    • Revolution for independence in 1848 fails
  • 1864 – Defeat in Austro-Prussian War
    • Afterwards, King Franz Joseph I (Habsburg) offers Hungary equal power
    • “Ausgleich” constitution accepted in 1867
      • Creates a Duel Monarchy:
      • Franz Joseph now king of Hungary and emperor of Austria
dual monarchy of austria hungary
Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary
  • Both Austria and Hungary had own constitution, language, flag, economies, etc
  • Ethnic crises in both parts of the empire
    • 8 different nationalities, languages, cultures, etc…
    • Hungarians try to force “Magyarization”
      • Forcing diverse citizens to practice only one language and culture: Hungarian
  • Complete disunity and disorganization
    • Chaotic, weak and inefficient empire would last until 1914
italy before unification
Italy Before Unification
  • Italy reorganized at Congress of Vienna in 1815
  • Austria ruled Lombardy & Venetia
  • Spanish ruled Kingdom of Two Sicilies
  • Piedmont-Sardinia was the most powerful of the Italian States, ruled by King Charles Albert – an Italian monarch
early action
Early Action
  • Revolutions of 1830
    • Giuseppe Mazzini attempts to organize a movement
    • Takes power from fleeing Pope Pius – forms a Roman Republic
    • France invades, restores Pope’s power
  • Revolutions of 1848
    • Many states granted temporary liberal constitutions
      • Both Mazzini and Giuseppe Garibaldi involved in this movement
piedmont sardinia takes control
Piedmont-Sardinia Takes Control
  • King Victor Emmanuel II
    • Monarch of Sardinia
  • Prime Minister Camillo Cavour aristocrat
    • Liberal, uses diplomacy against Austria
    • Gains support of Britain & France
    • Uses “Realpolitik”
  • Together will lead unification
    • Goal at first: strengthen Sardinia’s power, not to necessarily unify Italy
    • Focused on Northern Italy

What empire was in their way in Northern Italy?

austria out of italy
Austria Out Of Italy!
  • Made secret arrangement with Napoleon III to provoke a war with Austria
  • 1858 – Austria is lured into attacking Sardinia, France comes to defense and Austrians are driven out
    • France will get Nice and Savoy
    • Italians get part of Northern Italy but not Venetia
      • They will get Venetia later by helping the Germans fight Austria in 1866

Things worked out well so Cavour

sets his sights on southern Italy.


meanwhile in the south
Meanwhile in the South…
  • Garibaldi & his Red Shirts captured Sicily in 1860, inspiring Sicilians to join the cause for unification
  • Cavour secretly supports Garibaldi
    • Why is he helping?
  • Garibaldi marches north toward Rome and the Vatican
    • Cavour afraid of implications, calls for vote in conquered territories
  • Voted to unite southern areas with Sardinia
    • Garibaldi stepped aside
italy unified
Italy Unified!


What’s the problem?

italian unification
Italian Unification
  • Ruled by Victor Emmanuel II
  • 1866 – added Venetia as a result of the Seven weeks War (also called the Austro-Prussian War)
  • 1870 – added Papal States
    • Pope still governed Vatican City


  • Regional conflicts
    • Industrialized north vs. agricultural south
    • Peasant revolts, economic problems
  • Political conflict leads to violence
  • Mass emigration to United States

Italy enters 20th century a

poor and struggling nation

napoleon iii 1808 1873
Napoleon III (1808-1873)
  • No experience in politics
  • Nephew of Napoleon I
  • 1848 elected to four year term; share power with National Assembly
    • Somewhat influenced to Marx’s ideas
    • Still suppressed workers & peasants who opposed him
    • Strengthened his power
  • 1851 illegally dismissed Assembly; people voted to make him president for ten years
  • 1852 – declares himself emperor Napoleon III
the second empire of france 1852 1870
The Second Empire of France(1852-1870)


  • Improved industrialization
  • Helped build the Suez Canal
  • Improved railways
  • Allowed for some local government
  • Legalized labor unions
    • Right to strike guaranteed
  • Haussmannization – urban renewal in Paris
the second empire of france 1852 18701
The Second Empire of France(1852-1870)


  • Rigged elections
  • Secret police
  • Failed puppet regime in Mexico through Maximilian I
  • 1870 – Defeated In Franco-Prussian War
    • Ends Napoleon III’s rule and Second Empire
third republic of france
Third Republic of France
  • Bismarck imposes harsh peace terms
    • The French bankrupt & in disarray – humiliated
  • Assembly of wealthy royalists formed
  • Paris Commune (1871)
    • Coalition of resistance – lower classes wanted better rights & a republic
    • Commune savagely repressed,
  • Assembly can’t agree on king, facing pressure from lower classes
    • Choose a republic as least disagreeable compromise:
  • The Third Republic of France (1871)
    • Constitution approved by 1875
  • Despite weak Republic, France stable and prosperous by 1914
reform in great britain

Reform in Great Britain

Legislation can solve problems

19 th century england undemocratic
19th Century England: Undemocratic?
  • What was going on in England in the 1800s?
    • Industrialization – many problems for poor
      • Problems need to be fixed by government
  • What type of government was ruling in England?
    • Parliament – representative democracy
      • “Power to the people”
  • Politically, who ruled in Parliament?
    • The Conservatives – “The Tory Party” (since 1770s)
      • Led by Duke of Wellington
      • Severely repressed poor with laws and harsh tactics
  • Unfair representation:
    • Manchester & Birmingham had no representation in government
reform in england
Reform in England
  • Problems growing, not being fixed:
    • Tories forced out by 1830
  • Whig Party takes over – more liberal
    • Led by Lord Charles Grey
    • Help lower classes
  • “Chartism” – movement to reform:
    • Ends capital punishment, modern police force
    • Labor union restrictions removed, right to strike, worker insurance
    • Reforms in public housing, education
    • Voting reforms:
      • Universal manhood suffrage, secret ballot, end to property requirements, pay for members of Parliament
      • Working class men 1867, rural workers 1884, women 1919
names of british reform
Names of British Reform
  • 1820s – Robert Peel and George Canning
  • Reforms increased in 1830s and 40s
    • Chartist movement, regulation of working conditions and hours, repeal of the Corn Laws
      • Corn laws (1815) – prohibited imported grain, benefit landowners
  • 1867-1880 Gladstone & Disraeli
    • Alternated as Prime Ministers of England
    • Gladstone was a Liberal; Disraeli a Conservative
    • Both achieved immense reform during reigns
  • 1900 – The Labour Party
    • Political party demanding social and economic reforms
    • Both Liberals and Conservatives felt threatened
    • Pushed through a number of social insurance reforms as a result
what direction did the reforms move in
What direction did the reforms move in?
  • 1828 & 1829 Catholics and non-Anglican Protestants
  • 1832 Middle class suffrage
  • 1833 Abolished slavery
  • 1847 Women and children
  • 1848 Public Health
  • 1830s & 40s Chartists
  • 1870s Education
  • 1875 Strikes allowed
the irish dilemma
“The Irish Dilemma”
  • England ruled Ireland since 1603
  • Oppression of Irish Catholics
  • Irish Economic hardships
    • Potato famine of 1845
  • “Chartism” brings small reform:
    • Some protection from eviction
    • No longer pay dues to Anglican Church
  • Irish nationalism causes independence movements led by Charles Parnell:
    • Gladstone agrees to home rule (1914)
      • Postponed when WWI begins
    • Easter Uprising (1916)
    • Ireland gains independence by 1921
      • Excludes Protestant-heavy Northern Ireland
anti semitism europe
Anti-Semitism & Europe

Anti-Semitism has been nurtured by periods of social instability and crisis. Anger is deflected onto scapegoats such as an available, isolated minority such as the Jews

Ancient Rome

Devotion of Jews to their religion and special forms of worship were used as political discrimination; denied Roman citizenship

Crusades & Middle Ages

Jews massacred in great numbers; segregated into ghettoes and required to wear identifying garments

modern anti semitism
Modern Anti-Semitism

18th & 19th centuries – Enlightenment & FR

Increasing separation of church and state, rise of modern nation-states; Jews experienced less persecution and gradually integrated

Legal reforms changes things but racism persisted; political party platforms

Eastern Europe

Medieval traditions isolating Jews as an alien economic and social class solely for reasons of religion were never broken

Pogroms – a product of deliberate gov’t policy aimed at diverting the discontent of the workers & peasants in Russia

the dreyfus affair 1894 1906
The Dreyfus Affair 1894-1906

Who was Dreyfus?

Captain in the French army; one of the few Jewish officers

Accused of selling secrets to Germany

How can nationalism contribute to the growth of anti-Semitism?

key events players
Key Events & Players

1894 – charged with passing military secrets to the Germans based on handwritten evidence

Found guilty and sentenced to life in prison

Major Esterhazy was the real author; tried and acquitted in 1898

Emile Zola brought international attention to the case with J'accuse! in 1898

Case reopened in 1899 with new evidence

A hasty trial found him guilty again; sentenced to 10 years; pardoned by the President

Wasn’t officially exonerated until 1906


Strength of Anti-Semitism

Persecution of Jews was actually much worse in Eastern Europe

Zionist Movement 1890s

The movement to work for a separate homeland in Palestine

Theodor Herzel was the leader

dreyfus affair wrap up
Dreyfus Affair Wrap Up
  • How did Nationalism affect Anti-Semitism?
  • What effects did this have on France?
  • Political split:
    • Conservatives, Army, Church
      • Anti-Dreyfus


    • Liberal and Moderates
      • Dreyfus supporters
  • Leads to…
    • Separation between Church and State (1905)
    • Eventually more cohesion between political factions
the modernization of russia
The Modernization of Russia
  • What event highlighted the backwardness of Russia in the 1850s?
    • The Crimean War – battle for power of Eastern Europe
      • Russia v. France, Britain, Sardinia, Ottomans
      • Unable to supply their armies on the Crimean peninsula
      • Russia needed railroads, better armaments, and to reorganize the army
russia tsarist autocracy the romanovs
Russia: Tsarist Autocracy – The Romanovs
  • Alexander I (1801-1825)
    • Congress of Vienna
  • Nicholas I (1825-1855)
    • Decembrist Revolt: failed attempt at a constitution
  • Alexander II (1855-1881)
    • Reformer: abolished serfdom
    • Crimean War
  • Alexander III (1881-1894)
    • Reactionary (restored power); pogroms
    • Sergei Witte – Finance Minister
  • Nicholas II (1894-1917)
    • Russo-Japanese War
    • Revolution of 1905; Russian Revolution
the great reforms of alexander ii
The “Great Reforms” of Alexander II
  • Freeing of the Serfs 1861
    • Problem: Land owned collectively
  • Establishment of the zemstvo
    • Local assembly elected by towns, peasant villages & noble landowners
    • Very little autonomy
  • Reform of the legal system
    • Independent courts, equality before the law
  • Censorship relaxed, education & policies toward Jews liberalized



  • Political changes limited but economic changes working
    • 1860 –1,250 miles of railroad; 1880 –15,500
    • Sergei Witte – Encouraged foreign investment in Russian industry
    • By 1900, steel production 4th; producing half the world’s oil; exported grain
russo japanese war 1903 1905
Russo-Japanese War 1903-1905
  • Again, a major defeat led to turmoil at home
  • This defeat combined with separatist nationalist movements (Poles, Ukrainians), liberals in the business & professional classes, disgruntled factory workers…all led to demands for change
revolution of 1905
Revolution of 1905
  • Bloody Sunday
    • Nicholas II losing popularity fast
  • October Manifesto
    • Nicholas II granted full civil rights and an elected Duma
  • Duma
    • VERY limited by the “Fundamental Laws” (Russian Constitution)
    • Dismissed twice; landowners assured seats

In 1914, Russia was partially modernized, a conservative constitutional monarchy with a peasant-based but industrializing economy.