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LEC 02. Angiosperms Evolutionary Trends Classification Notes. FIELD BOTANY – Lecture 02 Dr. Donald P. Althoff. Woody plants usually _________ the herbs, vines, and climbers ______________ gave rise to biennials…and annuals have derived from both perennials & biennials

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field botany lecture 02 dr donald p althoff

LEC

02

Angiosperms

Evolutionary Trends

Classification Notes

FIELD BOTANY – Lecture 02

Dr. Donald P. Althoff

evolutionary trends in angiosperms in general
Woody plants usually _________ the herbs, vines, and climbers

______________ gave rise to biennials…and annuals have derived from both perennials & biennials

Dicots are considered ______primitive than monocots

Evolutionary Trends in Angiosperms (in general)
slide3

DICOTS

gymnosperms

Flowers

Seed-bearing

evolutionary trends in angiosperms in general con t
Alternate leaves with secretory cells are ____________ compared to opposite or whorled leaves without secretory cells.

Many separate stamens are more _________ than few or united stamens

Single fruits _________ aggregate fruits formed from several ovaries

OVERALL: _________ are not necessarily primitive, but have become _______ as a result of reduction from complex parts.

Evolutionary Trends in Angiosperms (in general)…con’t
slide5

_______ Fruits

__________ Fruits

slide6

_______ Stamens

_____ Stamens

Fuschia

St. Johnswort

in general vs monocots
______ diverse

About _____ of species are ________

Cotyledons: __ (rarely 1, 3, or 4)

Leaves: usually __________

Primary vascular bundle: ________

Floral parts (except carpels)sets of _________

Root system: __________________

_______…in general (vs. monocots)
slide12

1 vs. 2 cotyledons

Abundance of ______________ roots

in gene ral vs dicots
_____ diverse

Less than ____ of species are _______

Cotyledons: ___

Leaves: usually _________-veined

Primary vascular bundle: ________ or in 2 or more ______

Floral parts (except carpels) sets of _________

Root system: adventitious (characteristic of ferns, too)

Probably evolved from ___________ of dicots early in the evolutionary history of angiosperms

_________…in general (vs. dicots)
woody tree shrub vine families

Some…

Woody(tree/shrub/vine)Families
  • Aceraceae
  • Anacardiaceae
  • Annonaceae
  • Betulaceae
  • Caprifoliaceae
  • Cornaceae
  • Ericaceae
  • Fagaceae
  • Grossulariaceae
  • Hippocastanaceae
  • Juglandaceae
  • Magnoliaceae
  • Moraceae
  • Oleaceae
  • Salicaceae
  • Smilacaceae
  • Ulmaceae
forb herb families

Some…

Forb/Herb Families
  • Guttiferae (Clusiaceae)
  • Lamiaceae
  • Liliaceae
  • Lythraceae
  • Malvaceae
  • Nymphaeaceae
  • Orchidaceae
  • Oxalidaceae
  • Phytolaccaceae
  • Polygonaceae
  • Portulacaceae
  • Ranunculaceae
  • Scrophulariaceae
  • Alismataceae
  • Apiaceae
  • Apocynaceae
  • Araceae
  • Asclepiadaceae
  • Asteraceae
  • Balsaminaceae
  • Brassicaceae
  • Campanulaceae
  • Caryophyllaceae
  • Convolvulaceae
  • Fabaceae***
  • Geraniaceae
combo families woody herb

DICOT

DICOT

“Combo” Families: woody & herb
  • Fabaceae [alternate name:Leguminosae] “legumes family” alfalfa birdfoottreefoil partridge pea round-headed lespedeza s. partridge pea slimflowerscurfpea white clover yellow sweet clover wild blue indigo black locust*
  • Rosaceae
  • “rose family” rough avens* white avens* Am. plum black cherry black chokeberry black raspberry blackberry prairie rose multi-flora rose sweet (American) crap apple
slide17

Plantae

Kingdom

Division

Class

Subclass

Order

Family

Genus

Magnoliophyta(Anthrophyta)

1

Magnoliopsida-dicots

2

Liliopsida-moncots

-6 -5

1

2

dicotyledons division magnoliophyta class magnoliopsida
Dicotyledons(Division Magnoliophyta, Class Magnoliopsida)

1

Characteristics

Subclasses (6)

  • Advancement
  • Carpels
  • Flowers
  • Stamens
  • Pollen
  • Magnoliidae(8o.39f.11,000s)
  • Hamamelidae(11o.24f.3,400s)
  • Caryophyllidae(3o.14f.11,000s)
  • Dilleniidae(13o.78f.25,000s)
  • Rosidae(18o.114f.58,000s)
  • Asteridae(11o.49f.56,000s)

Cronquist system 1981

monocotyledons division magnoliophyta class magnoliopsida
Monocotyledons (Division Magnoliophyta, Class Magnoliopsida)

2

Characteristics

Subclasses (5)

  • Alismatidae(4o.16f,500s)
  • Arecidae(4o.5f.5,600s)
  • Commelinidae(6o.16f,16,200s)
  • Zingiberidae(2o.9f.3,800s)
  • Liliidae(2o.19f,25,000s)
  • Advancement
  • Carpels
  • Flowers
  • Stomatal Subsidiary Cells
characteristics helpful in subclass classification
Characteristics helpful in “subclass” classification
  • ________________: 1 or more features vs. relatively primitive
  • Carpels: apocarpous vs. syncarpous
  • Flowers: primitive to well developed
  • Pollen: monosulcate vs. tricolpate (for dicots)
  • Stomatal subsidiary cells: 04 (for monocots)
slide21

APOCARPOUS

Carpels_________ in

single individual pistils

SYNCARPOUS

_______ Carpels resulting

in compound ovary

  • CARPELS = megasporophyll
slide22

_________________

globosesymmetrical,

usually ___germinal

apertures

___________________

boat-shaped, 1 long

germinal furrow,

___germinal aperture

  • POLLEN

oak

grass

Lilium

onion

Artemisia

summary thoughts on classification for now
Summary thoughts on classification…for now
  • ______ characteristics to examine
  • Some characteristics are very “definitive”…others require some “_______________” (ex. primitive vs. slightlyadvanced)
  • _______________into a subclass, order, family, and even genus is subject to revision