in situ conservation of medicinal plant genetic resources in lithuania
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IN SITU CONSERVATION OF MEDICINAL PLANT GENETIC RESOURCES IN LITHUANIA

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IN SITU CONSERVATION OF MEDICINAL PLANT GENETIC RESOURCES IN LITHUANIA. Juozas Labokas 1 , Birutė Karpavičienė 1 , Laima Šveistytė 2 , Kristina Ložienė 1 , Jolita Radušienė 1 1 – Laboratory of Economic Botany, Institute of Botany, Žaliųjų Ežerų g. 49, Vilnius, Lithuania

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in situ conservation of medicinal plant genetic resources in lithuania

IN SITU CONSERVATION OF MEDICINAL PLANT GENETIC RESOURCES IN LITHUANIA

Juozas Labokas1, Birutė Karpavičienė1, Laima Šveistytė2, Kristina Ložienė1, Jolita Radušienė1

1 – Laboratory of Economic Botany, Institute of Botany,

Žaliųjų Ežerų g. 49, Vilnius, Lithuania

2 – Plant Gene Bank, Žaliųjų Ežerų g. 49, Vilnius, Lithuania

legal background
LEGAL BACKGROUND

1. The Republic of Lithuania Law on National Plant Genetic Resources (October 2001) in Article 8 states:“For in situ conservation of national plant genetic resources, genetic reserves, gene conservation areas, seed collection stands shall be established or populations, groups or single trees shall be selected. In situ conservation of national plant genetic resources shall not be separated from the conservation of theirnatural habitats, maintenance of vital populations and regeneration through creation of conditions favourable to their development.”http://www3.lrs.lt/pls/inter3/dokpaieska.showdoc_l?p_id=230551

Priority given to the wild species, particularly forest trees.

2 place in the system of protected areas
2. Place in the system of protected areas

“Areas of restorative protection priority (restoration and maintenance areas)” shall mean the areas in which the natural resources of importance to activities and society are protected, restored, maintained, enhanced and made restricted use of.

slide4
Areas of conservational priority (strict reserves, reserves and objects of heritage) as well as complex (integrated) protected areas (state parks and biosphere monitoring areas) are called Special Protected Aareas (SPA).
  • SPAs occupy 998,000 ha, or 15.3 % of the country’s territory
slide5
3. Regulations for seed plots attributed to the national plant genetic resources. Ministry of Environment, December 2003.Here, definitions and general rules for the selection, handling, protection and keeping records of seed (genetic) plots are given.
definition
Definition
  • Seed (genetic) plot* is a perennial (herbaceous or woody) plant stand designated for a long-term conservation and utilization of genetic material for plant breeding; for cultivation of medicinal plants and berries, establishment of plantations of ornamental and other plant species.*Also used terms: seed area, seed collection area, seed stand, seed collection stand. But these are mostly applied in forestry, e.g.: http://nfdp.ccfm.org/terms/terms_e.php?letter=s
procedure
Procedure
  • Seed (genetic) plots are selected by the crop-specific Coordinating Centres (there are 5 of them including the Centre for Medicinal and Aromatic plant genetic resources, based at the Institute of Botany).
  • Lists of the selected plots are submitted for the approval to the Permanent Committee on National PGR, which in turn reports to the Ministry of Environment
rules for selection
Rules for selection
  • Seed (genetic) plots are to be selected on a state-owned land.
  • General selection criteria: biological, ecological, genetic, social and economic value of species; each being scored on 5-point scale, and an average score calculated.
  • Crop-specific criteria are to be prepared by each Coordinating Centre respectively.
  • The baseline information provided shall include: species name(s), exact place, motivation of selection.
  • Seed (genetic) plots are to be selected in different natural areas.
scientific background
SCIENTIFIC BACKGROUND
  • FP5 Project “European crop wild relative diversity assessment & conservation forum” (PGR Forum) (2002-2005):http://www.pgrforum.org/
  • Nordic-Baltic project “Spice and medicinal plants in the Nordic and Baltic countries. Strategies for conservation of genetic resources in minor crops” (SPIMED) (2002-2005).
  • Lots of scientific papers published by the authors of this presentation:http://www.botanika.lt/struktura/str_lab3.html
results of the first field works
Results of the first field-works
  • The first field-works on selection of seed (genetic) plots of medicinal plants were carried out in 2006-2007.
  • The crop-specific criteria were started to develop from the the list of target species, for which the following points were taken into account: –– socio-economic value of species (popularity of use),–– abundance of resources, –– phenotypic and genetic diversity,–– size and density of populations (coenopopulations).
  • In separate cases some additional criteria were considered: – contents of biologically active substances, – productivity, – resistance to pests and diseases, – spectrum of utilisation, – educational-scientific value and – cultural-historic value.
slide11
Seed (genetic) plots were singled out based on the following criteria:

– number of target species and quantity of resources,

– distinctive properties of target species populations,

– position of a plot with respect to local eco-geographical conditions,

– plot delimitation conditions/clearness.

slide12
The work-scheme used for each plot:
    • Target species inventorised.
    • Plant community described according to Braun-Blanquet.
    • Exact place defined with GPS.
    • Area (ha, m2) calculated with GPS.
    • Motivation of selection set forth.
    • Map of a plot drawn.
3 seed genetic plots approved
3 seed (genetic) plots approved:
  • Veliuona medicinal plant seed (genetic) plotShrubbery on riverside slope (Cl. Rhamno-Prunetea spinosae), size 0.90 haPanemuniai Regional Park, South-Central Lithuania.
  • Dusia medicinal plant seed (genetic) plotShrubbery on lakeside hill (Cl. Rhamno-Prunetea spinosae), size 0.40 haMeteliai Regional Park, South Lithuania.
  • Labanoras lingonberry genetic plotPlain pinewood(Ass. Peucedano-Pinetum sylvestris),size 30.0 ha Labanoras Regional Park, East Lithuania.
groups of species covered
Groups of species covered
  • Economic plants and crop wild relatives:

Medicinal and aromatic plants

Berry, nut and fruit plants

Ornamental species

Forage species (not target species).

  • National Red Data Book species (red font in the list).
3 more seed genetic plots are pending
3 more seed (genetic) plots are pending
  • Hazelnut (Corylus avellana) stand near Leipalingis, South Lithuania, size 89.5 ha (17.5 ha negotiated positively).
  • Ramson (Allium ursinum) stand near Prienai,South-Central Lithuania, size 18.97 ha.
  • Medicinal plant stand near Dieveniškės, South-East Lithuania, size 5.0 ha.
slide25
Leaf shape variation in Corylus avellana by the PC1 (length/width relation), representing 40 % of total shape variation (found using elliptic Fourier descriptors & image analysis) Population codes:1 – Ruigiai2 – Strosiunai3 – Spindzius4 – Pabrade5 – Leipalingis6 – Gailiunai7 – Varlaukis
handling and protection of plots
Handling and protection of plots

According to the Regulations:

  • Handling and protection of seed (genetic) plots is the responsibility of the administrator of the land, where the plots are located.
  • Use of pesticides (with some exceptions), construction of roads, parkings, changing of water regime are prohibited.
  • Recommendations for the handling, protection and management of the plots are provided by the Coordinating Centre.
documentation and responsibility
Documentation and responsibility
  • Selected seed (genetic) plots are registered in the Central Database of the National PGRhttp://www.agb.lt//duomenu%20baze/lauko_kolekcijos.php
  • The documents of a seed (genetic) plot are passport and cartographic material, prepared by the Coordinating Centre.
  • The Coordinating Centre carries out inventories of the plots every 10 years or more frequently as it appears necessary due to unfavourable climatic and anthropogenic factors.
  • The Coordinating Centre controls the status, protection and utilisation of seed (genetic) plots.
gaps and shortcomings
Gaps and shortcomings
  • Annual and biennial plants are omitted in the Regulations for seed (genetic) plots.
  • Only state-owned land is taken into account in the Regulations when selecting seed (genetic) plots.
  • Lack of compatibility between some provisions of the two laws: Law on Protected Areas and Law on National PGR:- no clear difference between genetic reserves and genetic plots;- only 2 categories of genetic areas are defined in the Law on Protected Areas, while that of National PGR defines 4 of them.
things to do
Things to do
  • For the Ministry of Environment – to work out the amendments of the legal acts.
  • For the Coordinating Centre of MAPs – to develop management plans for seed (genetic) plots established.
  • For Plant Gene Bank – to facilitate national inventories of crop wild relatives (CWR).
  • For the Institute of Botany – to continue research on PGR conservation in situ, particularly of CWR.
  • For all of us – to resume cooperation with the NordGen and other European and international partners and develop joint research projects.
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