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REVIEW MATCHING) 1. Zoology a. plants 2. Genetics b. animals 3. Anatomy c. heredity 4. Botany d. organisms & PowerPoint Presentation
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REVIEW MATCHING) 1. Zoology a. plants 2. Genetics b. animals 3. Anatomy c. heredity 4. Botany d. organisms & their environ- ment 5. Ecology e. structure of organisms 6. Taxonomy f. Change over time 7. Evolution g. Classification. 8. HOMEOSTASIS

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REVIEW MATCHING) 1. Zoology a. plants 2. Genetics b. animals 3. Anatomy c. heredity 4. Botany d. organisms &


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    1. REVIEW MATCHING) 1. Zoology a. plants 2. Genetics b. animals 3. Anatomy c. heredity 4. Botany d. organisms & their environ- ment 5. Ecology e. structure of organisms 6. Taxonomy f. Change over time 7. Evolution g. Classification

    2. 8. HOMEOSTASIS 9. METABOLISM 10. INFERENCE 11. THEORY 12. HYPOTHESIS 13. BIOGENESIS LIFE COMES FROM OTHER LIFE AN INTERPRETATION OF OBSERVATIONS A STATEMENT SUMMARIZING MANY WELL SUPPORTED HYPOTHESES ALL CHEMICAL REACTIONS IN A CELL MAINTAINING STABLE INTERNAL CONDITIONS A TESTABLE STATEMENT MATCH THE FOLLOWING TERMS

    3. NUCLEUS ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM GOLGI COMPLEX MITOCHONDRIA RIBOSOME LYSOSOME CYTOSKELETON CYTOPLASM CELL MEMBRANE A. REGULATES WHAT ENTERS AND LEAVES A CELL B. “SUICIDE SACS” – DIGESTIVE STRUCTURE C. “POWERHOUSE” – GENERATES ATP D. “POSTOFFICE” – PACKAGES AND SHIPS PRODUCTS FROM THE CEL E. “ROADWAY” – MAKES LIPIDS AND TRANSPORTS SUBSTANCES W/IN THE CELL F. GEL-LIKE FLUID W/IN THE CELL G. “CONTROL CENTER” – HOUSES DNA H. “CELL FACTORY” – SITE OF PROTEIN SYNTHESIS I. MAINTAINS CELL STRUCTURE REVIEW MATCHING

    4. OCCURS IN PLANT CELLS OCCURS IN ANIMAL CELLS OCCURS IN THE CHLOROPLAST OCCURS IN THE MITOCHONDRIA 6CO2 + 6 H20 + LIGHT  GLUCOSE +6 O2 GLUCOSE + 6 O2  6 CO2 + 6 H2O + ATP PHOTOSYNTHESIS CELLULAR RESPIRATION BOTH REVIEW MATCHING

    5. Cell division resulting in 2, identical, diploid cells  somatic cells Cell division resulting in 4, different haploid cells  gametes Time between cell division where cell grows, makes proteins, and prepares to divide Chromatin condense  chromosomes; nucleus disappears Chromosomes align in the middle of the cell Chromatids are pulled apart by spindle Chromatids repair with homolog  nucleus reforms Cell splits with cleavage furrow or cell plate METAPHASE PROPHASE MITOSIS ANAPHASE TELOPHASE MEIOSIS CYTOKINESIS INTERPHASE CELL CYCLE REVIEW

    6. REMEMBER • PRESENTATIONS BEGIN MONDAY • CP BIOLOGY: pg 57 and 59 #s 1-10 due Monday – WRITE LETTER AND ANSWER

    7. 1. Cytology 2. Genetics 3. Evolution 4. Taxonomy 5. Microbiology 6. Zoology 7. Botany 8. Ecology Cells Heredity Change over time Classification Microscopic organisms (viruses, bacteria, protists) Animals Plants Interactions of organisms with their environment Biology – The Study of Living things: Many fields

    8. 1. Growth 2. Reproduction 3. Respond to Stimuli 4. Genetic Code 5. Metabolism 6. Homeostasis 7. Made of Cells Atoms  Molecules  Cells  Tissues  Organs  Organ Systems  Organism  Populations  Communities  Ecosystems  Biomes  Biosphere NOT ALL LIVING THINGS CAN BE SEEN TO MOVE Total energy use (eating, breathing Maintaining stable internal conditions (body temperature) Characteristics of Living Things

    9. ORGANIZATION OF LIFE = BASIC UNIT OF LIFE LIVING NON-LIVING

    10. Scientific Statements are falsifiable - can be disproved (Objective) Nonscientific Statements cannot be disproved (Subjective – Opinion based) Science vs Non-science

    11. Flowchart Designing an Experiment Section 1-2 State the Problem Analyze Results Form a Hypothesis Set Up a Controlled Experiment Controls = keep the same Independent/manipulated variable = changed Dependent/responding variable = measured Draw a Conclusion Record Results Qualitative – description Quantitative - numbers Publish Results Go to Section:

    12. Theory • A broad statement linking together many WELL SUPPORTEDhypotheses • Theory of Evolution • Big Bang Theory • Atomic Theory HOW DOES THE COMMON USE OF THE WORD “THEORY” DIFFER FROM THE SCIENTIFIC DEFINITION?

    13. THE TOOLS OF SCIENCE1. Microscopes a. Compound Light: Uses 2 lenses and light; Can look at living things • Resolution: How clear it is • Magnification: How enlarged it is = Optic * Ocular Lens b. Electron: Uses electrons; Magnification much greater • Organism must be dead

    14. 5. SCIENCE TOOLS • MEASURED IN SI (STANDARD INTERNATIONAL UNITS) units. Base units include: • LENGTH = METERS • VOLUME = LITER • MASS = GRAMS • CENTI = 1/100, MILLI = 1/1000, KILO = 1000 • A CENTIMETER = 1/100TH OF A METER

    15. USE THE PARAGRAPH BELOW TO ANSWER QUESTIONS 1-5. Kellie wants to win the “largest pumpkin” award at the fair. She wants to compare 2 plant foods to see their affect on the pumpkin growth. She designs an experiment to determine the affect of various foods on pumpkin growth. She gives plant food # 1 to pumpkin # 1 and plant food # 2 to pumpkin # 2. She doesn’t give any plant food to pumpkin # 3. All of the pumpkins are kept in the same sunlight, temperature, and given the same amount of water. After 2 weeks, she measures the growth of each pumpkin. 1. What group does Pumpkins # 1 and # 2 represent? (A) Control Group (B) Manipulated Group (C) Data Group (D) Experimental Group (E) Inference 2. What type of data is collected in Kellie’s experiment? (A) qualitative (B) quantitative (C) Is best displayed with a pie graph (D) Represents inductive reasoning 3. The different plant foods represent the: (A) qualitative data (B) control group (C) independent variable (D) dependent variable 4. What represents the control group? • Pumpkin # 1 (B) Pumpkin # 2 (C) Pumpkin # 3 (d) The Plant Food 5. The growth of each pumpkin represents the: (A) Control Group (B) Manipulated Variable (C) Responding Variable (D) Inference

    16. 6. What would be the best unit to measure the distance from Augusta, GA to Washington D.C.? (A) meters (B) kilometers (C) kilograms (D) seconds (E) cubic centimeters 7. What piece of equipment is best for measuring 20 grams of NaCl? • graduated cylinder (B) triple-beam balance (C) Beaker (D) meter stick 8. What piece of equipment is best for measuring 20 ml of water? • graduated cylinder (B) triple-beam balance (C) Beaker (D) meter stick 9. The best way to clean a microscope is with: • Your sleeve (B) Your hand (C) Special tissues (D) a moistened paper towel 10. You know that a rock is not alive because: (A) It does not reproduce (B) It is not made of cells (C) It does not maintain homeostasis (D) It does not grow (E) All of the above (F) None of the above

    17. CHEMISTRY

    18. CHEMISTRY – THE STUDY OF THE NATURE, COMPOSITION, AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER • Matter: Anything that has mass (amount of matter) and takes up space • There are 3 States of Matter

    19. pH scale: determines acid or base: scale 1-14 • Acid: High concentration of hydronium ions (H+) • Less than 7 on pH scale • Base: High concentration of hydroxide ions (OH-) • Greater than 7 on pH scale • alkaline

    20. MACROMOLECULES = ORGANIC COMPOUNDS THAT MAKE UP CELLS IN LIVING THINGS – made of C, H, O, NCARBON IS THE “BACKBONE” OF LIFE

    21. CHEMISTRY – Use the paragraph below to answer questions 11-12 After red blood cells pick up carbon dioxide from tissues, the CO2 reacts with water to form carbonic acid. Once in the lungs, it is converted back to CO2 and water, and the CO2 is exhaled. Carbonic anhydrase increases the reaction rate from 200 molecules of carbonic acid to 600,000 carbonic acid molecules per hour 11. Carbonic anhydrase represents: (A) an enzyme (B) a substrate (C) a pigment (D) a reactant 12. What are the building blocks of the substance in # 11? (A) Amino Acids (B) Fatty acids (C) Nucleotides (D) Monosaccharides

    22. 13. Covalent bonds result from atoms _______ electrons, while ionic bonds result from _______ electrons. (A) sharing, transferring (B) sharing, sharing (C) transferring, transferring (D) transferring, sharing 14. When a maximum amount of solute is dissolved in a solvent, the solution is: (A) Saturated (B) Covalently bonded (C) Distilled (D) Separated 15. Which of the following represents a primary energy source for cells? (A) Carbohydrates (B) Proteins (C) Nucleic Acids (D) Lipids 16. Cohesion and adhesion are both possible due to which water property? (A) Polarity (B) Solubility (C) Transparency (D) Ionic bonding 17. If an atom has an atomic number of 8 and has a charge of -2, how many electrons does it have? (A) 6 (B) 8 (C) 10 (D) 0 18. Stomach acid would be expected to have a pH around: (A) 2 (B) 7 (C) 9 (D) 13 19. The primary solute in the cytoplasm of a cell is:(A) Water (B) NaCl (C) Lipids (D) Nucleic Acids 20. Carbon 14 has 2 more neutrons than Carbon 12. Carbon 14 represents a: (A) ion (B) isotope (C) compound (D) organic compound

    23. CELL PARTS PLANT & ANIMAL CELLS

    24. HISTORY OF CELL DISCOVERIES -1665 – ROBERT HOOKE – First discovered and named cells (in non-living cork) -1673 – Anton Van Leeuwenhoek - “Father of MICROSCOPY”. • *First to describe LIVING CELLS AND MICROSCOPIC STRUCTURES The CELL THEORY: 1800s 1. ALL LIVING THINGS ARE MADE OF CELLS. (Schleiden and Schwann) 2. CELLS ARE THE BASIC UNIT OF LIFE 3. CELLS COME ONLY FROM OTHER CELLS (Virchow)

    25. 2 KINDS OF CELLS: PROKARYOTES & EUKARYOTES PROKARYOTE = NONUCLEUS OR MEMBRANE-BOUND ORGANELLES EX. = BACTERIA EUKARYOTE – HAS A NUCLEUS& MEMBRANE-BOUND ORGANELLES EX. = PLANTS, ANIMALS

    26. REVIEW OF CELL PARTSHow do plant and animal cells differ? CLICK ON THIS FOR A REVIEW OF THE FUNCTIONS: http://sps.k12.ar.us/massengale/cell_functions.htm

    27. CELL MEMBRANE (“LIPID BILAYER”) • MADE OF LIPIDS AND PROTEINS • SELECTIVELY PERMEABLE • The Cell WALL – Tough, outer layer outside of cell membrane IN BACTERIA, ALGAE, AND FUNGI

    28. DIFFUSION = MOVEMENT OF MOLECULES FROMHIGH CONCENTRATION (MORE MOLECULES) TOLOWCONCENTRATION (LESS MOLECULES) = DIFFUSION OF H20

    29. EFFECTS OF SOLUTIONS ON CELLS – HOW CELLS MAINTAIN HOMEOSTASIS PURE WATER SALT WATER

    30. EXPLAIN WHAT IS HAPPENING

    31. ACTIVE TRANSPORT = movement of molecules fromLOWtoHIGH concentration HIGH LOW REQUIRES ENERGY

    32. EOCT DAY 2 QUIZ • NUMBER FROM 1-15

    33. 1. The organelle that is the site of protein synthesis is: • Ribosome (B) Golgi Body (C) Nucleus (D) Cell Membrane 2. If a cell is placed in a solution with a high concentration of glucose, water will: (A) Enter the cell by osmosis (B) Exit the cell by osmosis (C) Exit the cell by active transport (D) Enter the cell by facilitated diffusion 3. What will happen to an animal cell if it is left in a solution of distilled water overnight? (A) It will shrivel (B) It will swell and burst (C) It will remain at equilibrium (D) It will undergo photosynthesis 4. The macromolecules which have the greatest variety of function and are the main component of Cell Membranes are:(A) Lipids (B) Carbohydrates (C) Nucleic Acids (D) Proteins 5. The individual who discovered and named cells was: (A) Anton Van Leeuenhoek (B) Charles Darwin (C) Robert Hooke (D) Gregor Mendel 6. An egg that was left in a solution overnight was shriveled the next day. The solution was: (A) Hypertonic (B) Hypotonic (C) Isotonic (D) Salty 7. The organelle in which DNA is stored is the: (A) Mitochondria (B) Nucleus (C) Ribosome (D) Cell Membrane 8. What best describes the Cell Theory? (A) All living things are made of cells (B) Cells come from pre-existing cells (C) Cells are the basic unit of all life (D) All of the above (E) None of the above 9. Eukaryotic cells differ from prokaryotic cells in that (A) Eukaryotic cells are living and prokaryotic cells are not (B) Eukaryotic cells have a true nucleus and membrane bound organelles (C) Eukaryotic cells are much smaller than prokaryotic cells (D) Eukaryotic cells include only bacteria

    34. CELL ENERGY

    35. ATP = ENERGY STORAGE COMPOUND IN CELLS LIKE AN UNCHARGED BATTERY LIKE A CHARGED BATTERY

    36. WHY DO PHOTOSYNTHESIS & RESPIRATION DEPEND ON EACH OTHER? GLUCOSE + ATP

    37. WHICH IS PHOTOSYNTHESIS & WHICH IS CELL RESPIRATION? C6H1206 + O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + 38 ATP In mitochondria PLANTS & ANIMALS DO THIS TO RELEASE ENERGY 6CO2 + 6H2O + LIGHT  C6H1206 + O2 In chloroplasts ONLY PLANTS DO THIS TO STORE ENERGY

    38. CELL REPRODUCTION

    39. STAGES OF MITOSIS – cell division to make organisms grow & repair themselves INTERPHASE = PERIOD BETWEEN CELL DIVISIONS PMAT = PROPHASE METAPHASE ANAPHASE TELOPHASE CYTOKINESIS = DIVISION OF CYTOPLASM

    40. MITOSIS – makes 2 identical cells with same DNA – happens in all forms of ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION PARENT CELL WITH 46 CHROMOSOMES 46 46 46 DAUGHTER CELLS HAVE 46 CHROMOSOMES

    41. MEIOSIS = cell division in ovaries & testes to produce gametes (eggs & sperm) Human ovary or testis cell starts with 46 chromosomes. After meiosis, the eggs & sperm only have 23 chromosomes. 23 23 23 46 23 23 23

    42. SEXUAL REPRODUCTION – involves 2 sex cells (gametes)  offspring will be a combination of the 2 parents HAPLOID HAPLOID EGG (23) + SPERM (23) ZYGOTE (46) DIPLOID

    43. Mitosis 2 cells formed Cells are diploid (full set of chromosomes) Cells are identical to “parent” cell Forms all cells besides sex cells Meiosis 4 cells formed Cells are haploid (half set of chromosomes) Cells vary from “parent” cells Forms sex cells (gametes) Comparing Mitosis and Meiosis

    44. 10. Which of the statements is NOT true concerning the following reactions? 1. 6CO2+ 6 H2O + light energy  Glucose + 6 O2 2. Glucose + 6 O2  6 H2O + energy (A) Chemical energy is converted to cellular energy in photosynthesis, and light energy is changed into chemical energy in respiration (B) Photosynthesis requires energy while respiration releases energy (C) Respiration is an ecothermic reaction while photosynthesis is endothermic (D) Oxygen is a reactant in respiration and product of photosynthesis (E) The 1st formula represents photosynthesis while the 2nd represents respiration. 11. Cellular respiration is to __________ as photosynthesis is to __________. (A) Mitochondria, Photosynthesis (B) Photosynthesis, Mitochondria (C) Nucleus, Cell Membrane (D) Golgi bodies, Endoplasmic reticulum

    45. 12. Put the following stages of Mitosis in order: (A) Prophase, Metaphase, Telophase, Anaphase (B) Metaphase, Prophase, Anaphase, Telophase (C) Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase (D) Telophase, Anaphase, Metaphase, Prophase 13. What best describes the difference between mitosis and meiosis? (A) Mitosis produces 2 identical and diploid cells, and meiosis produces 4 different and haploid cells (B) Mitosis produces 4 different and haploid cells, and meiosis produces 2 identical and diploid cells (C) Mitosis only produces gametes (D) Meiosis is used in the repair of body cells 14. Cell Division differs in a plant cell from an animal cell at which step? (A) Prophase (B) Metaphase (C) Anaphase (D) Telophase (E) Cytokinesis

    46. DNA, RNA & PROTEIN SYNTHESIS