Do Now • How would you react if you had similar working conditions to factory workers in the late 1800s?
I. Labor Unions U.S.5.03: Assess the impact of labor unions on industry and the lives of workers. U.S.5.04: Describe the changing role of government in economic and political affairs.
A. Working Conditions • Low pay, bad working conditions and long hours. • Heavy use of child labor • Some kids started working at the age of 5 • Example: Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire • What can you do to improve these awful working conditions?
B. Creation of Labor Unions • Definition of labor union: group of workers united to improve the economic and social well-being of its members. • Methods: • Collective Bargaining – negotiate employment contract as a group • Main reason people joined labor unions – better chance of higher pay • Mediation/Arbitration – if negotiations fail, the two sides come together and use a third party to help settle the issue • Strikes – workers refuse to work until there is positive change
C. Types of Labor Unions • Trade unions – unions for any type of worker, less skilled workers • Craft Unions – unions for people working in the same profession/practicing the same craft.
C. Types of Labor Unions • American Federation of Labor (AFL) – one of the 1st craft unions. • Focus: wages, working hours and working conditions. • Used strikes, boycotts of products and collective bargaining to try to get what it wanted. • Wanted a “closed shop” – employers could only hire union members. • Knights of Labor – national trade union • At one point had over 700,000 members – tried to get every worker to join. • Supported an eight-hour work day, the end of child labor, and equal pay for equal work. • Tried to work in politics and educate people.
D. Response of Big Business Businesses didn’t like labor unions because they made them lose money with strikes or higher wages. Tactics: • Yellow-dog contract – made workers sign contract saying they wouldn’t join a union. • Lockouts – not allow employees to come back to work. • Blacklist- give the workers on strike a bad reputation. • Injunctions – court orders to stop strikes. • Scabs – replaced workers who were on strike.
E. Famous Strikes • The Great Railroad Strike (1877) – 80,000 workers nationwide; the federal government sent troops to end the strike and left over 100 men dead. • Impact: showed businesses they could get help from the federal gov’t to end strikes
E. Famous Strikes • Haymarket Square Riot –Knights of Labor organized 8-hour workday protest in Chicago. • A separate protest threw a bomb into a crowd of police officers, killing 6 of them. • Impact: turned public opinion against labor unions and effectively ended the Knights of Labor.
E. Famous Strikes • Homestead Strike – steel workers protested for better working conditions and pay. • Had some violence, and the public still saw it as the unions causing problems. • Carnegie locked out his workers and blacklisted them from working in the steel industry.
E. Famous Strikes • Pullman Strike – 120,000 railroad workers. • Federal government response: issued an injunction against the strike and sent in troops to end it. • Impact: set precedent for getting the courts to help big businesses.
Stop and Summarize • Based on the famous strikes you just learned about, how did the federal government usually respond when labor problems or strikes occurred?
Guided Practice: Cartoon • Using the information from lecture, make a cartoon that shows labor union methods and business responses. • You can use one of the historical examples we talked about or you can create your own scenario.
A. Government Approach to Business • “Laissez-faire” economics: hands-off approach • Idea that government should not interfere with the work of businesses
B. Result: Corruption • Spoils system/patronage – giving people a government job in exchange for some type of favor or money • Graft– use your political power to make money • Ex. Giving a contractor money to build a park or building if they would give you a certain amount of money • political machines - Group of people in control of local politics. • Would give immigrants jobs and services in exchange for their political support • Made use of graft and the spoils system to stay in power.
B. Examples of Corruption • Whiskey Ring • Federal government officials set high liquor taxes and took the money • Used it for Republican Party campaigns • Tammany Hall – video • Boss Tweed stole in between 50 and 200 million dollars from New York City
Stop and Think • How would you solve the political corruption we discussed yesterday?
Government Changes Use a graphic organizer to organize the next parts of notes. Your chart should look something like this:
A. Pendleton Civil Service Act • Addressed the corruption with the spoils system/jobs in the civil service (government jobs) • Required people who wanted government jobs to take the civil service exam to see if they were qualified enough • Once appointed, government workers couldn’t be fired for political reasons • Impact: got rid of the spoils system and corruption, made the civil service more professional.
B. Sherman Anti-Trust Act • Sherman Antitrust Act – tried to break up the monopolies. • Government didn’t want monopolies to be able to charge people whatever they wanted. • Gave Congress the power to break up any company that was trying to become a monopoly. • Effect: companies worked around the law and still were able to control prices, but clearly showed the government’s concern with big business.
C. Secret Ballot • Secret Ballot – trying to solve the political machine problem • Before, who you voted for was published – political machines would know who to reward for voting for them and who to punish. • Secret ballot eliminated some of the patronage and pressure on people to vote a certain way
D. Progressive Presidents • President Theodore (Teddy) Roosevelt: • Wanted Americans to have a “Square Deal” • Became known as a “trust buster” through the Sherman Anti-Trust Act and making “gentlemen’s agreements” with companies to keep things fair. • Created the National Parks system and the U.S. Forest Service to protect America’s natural resources.
Exit Ticket • 1) Corruption in government led to a call by progressives for reform in government. Which of the following were some of the reasons for this corruption? • A. Political machines, the spoils system, graft • B. The Pendleton Act, the adoption of the Australian ballot, the referendum • C. The secret practices of the Mugwumps, and the implementation of the referendum. • D. Thomas Nast, the over-enforcement of the Sherman Anti-trust Act, and the failure of Tammany Hall.
Exit Ticket • 2) For workers, the primary advantage of membership in a labor union is: • a. The ability to conduct lock-outs. • b. Decreased employment levels. • c. Decreased costs of goods and services. • d. Collective bargaining power
Exit Ticket • 3) How did the government’s role in economic and political affairs change during this era? Explain how it changed and use one example to support your answer.