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Somalia

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  1. Somalia Lindsay and Megan

  2. Geography

  3. Fact Sheet • Borders Ethiopia, Kenya and Djibouti with the Indian Ocean to the North and East • Population: 9.6 million • Relies on an agricultural economy, including bananas and livestock. Coastline provides an ample fishing industry as well

  4. Political History • British Somaliland and Italian Somaliland united in independence in 1960 • Civil war from 1991 – 2006 when SiadBarre’s regime fell to clan-based opposition groups • Large famine that threatened 1/3 – ½ of the population of Somalia

  5. Continued • United Nations intervention from 1993-1995 on a humanitarian basis • After peace-keeping failed and Somali protesters killed 24 Pakistanis and 18 US soldiers, troops withdrew • Clan – based political structures as a “political instrument”

  6. Uniqueness • New federal government • Representative of the population across geographical regions and family clans • Somali elders elected the parliament • “New Deal”: “promotes state-building and peace-building over the next three years, and seeks to start to strengthen the country’s political processes, security, legal system and economic foundation” • Reducing piracy • Building and restoring schools and hospitals • Funding for police stations and courts • Pledged to take responsibility for development, including individual rights and stable security and economy

  7. Challenges to the State Drought Famines Reliance on foreign aid Most recent attack on Nairobi mall carried out by Al-Shabaab insurgents U.N. Monitoring Group’s report on Somalian public finances The Somali government, although internationally recognized, is weak; its army is mostly a mixture of militias still loyal to quarrelling warlords (Doyle, 2013). • Lack of a unified central government • Civil war/clan warfare  chaos, violence and unrest • al-Shabaab – Somalian based militant Islamist group. Directly connected to al-Qaeda • Piracy • Disease • Poor healthcare system

  8. Current Events • What/Where: Terrorist attack on the Westgate mall in Nairobi, Kenya. • When: September 21, 2013 • Who: al-Shabaab militants from Somalia. • Duration: 4 days of fighting • Outcome: • At least 67 killed (foreigners included), many unaccounted for and hundreds wounded. • 5 terrorists killed of an estimated 10-15 in the mall • Numerous arrests of suspects involved in the planning and execution. • Why: Retaliation for Kenya’s… • Support for Madobe an ex-senior al-Shabaab leader. • Mobilization of troops into Al-Shabaab controlled territories in 2011. • Success in gaining control of Kismayu (key port city for al-Shabaab) from the al-Shabaab.

  9. Ramifications • Terrorism still an immediate threat to Somalia and neighboring states • Government still does not have complete control over land and population • Nation is attempting to rebuild after 20 years of civil war. • Will this be a set back or will it propel them forward? • High international involvement and support could

  10. Bibliography • Mohamed, Hamza (2013, September 24). Somalia intervention cited for mall assault. Al Jazeera. Retrieved from http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/features/2013/09/201392494741798 65.html • President Hassan Sheikh Mohamud (2013, September 24). World must back stability in Somalia. CNN. Retrieved from http://globalpublicsquare.blogs.cnn.com/2013/09/24/world-must-back stability-in-somalia/?iref=allsearch • Søvndal, V. and Bach, C.F. (2013, September 30). Despite the Kenya mall tragedy, there is hope in the Horn of Africa. The Guardian. Retrieved from http://www.theguardian.com/global-development/poverty matters/2013/sep/30/kenya-westgate-mall-tragedy-africa • Doyle, M. (2013, September 28). On the shifting frontlines of the fight against al Shabaab. The Guardian. Retrieved from http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/sep/29/somalia-fight-against al-shabaab