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ROME. Geography. Rome is located in Italy. Italy is located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea. Romans used to refer to the sea as “ Mare Nostrum ”, which meant “our sea”. Government.

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Rome is located in Italy. Italy is located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea. Romans used to refer to the sea as “Mare Nostrum”, which meant “our sea”.


The Romans created a new form of government called a republic. These were people chosen by the people to make decisions. The most powerful people were part of the Senate. The Senate made laws. The first written laws in Rome were called “Laws of the Twelve Tables”. This made enforcing the laws more fair because everyone had the same laws to abide by. The upper class people in Rome were called patricians, the lower class were called plebeians.

Julius caesar
Julius Caesar

Julius Caesar came to power after Rome conquered all of Italy and there were many wars going on within Italy. Julius Caesar was a great conqueror and made many reforms. The people of the Senate killed Caesar.

Pax romana
Pax Romana

After Caesar died, Augustus, his grandnephew, got rid of the republic and ruled under absolutism. In absolutism, only one person is in charge and makes all of the decisions. Under this rule, the Roman Empire started and a long period of peace began. This long period of roman peace is called the “Pax Romana”.


Rome is responsible for many new ideas. Government and law were Rome’s most significant contribution. They also brought new ideas of architecture. Aqueducts brought water from the country to the city.

Rise of the empire
Rise of the Empire

Rome became powerful for many reasons. They had a very strong and disciplined army. They had a strong centralized government under Augustus. Their location on the Mediterranean sea allowed for great trade opportunities.

Fall of the empire
Fall of the Empire

Rome did not maintain its power forever. The empire began to decline because of many problems. The Roman army was too big and made up of many foreigners, the barbarians were attacking, the government lost the support of the people, and taxes became very high to support the government.

Splitting of the empires
Splitting of the Empires

When Rome fell, they attempted to split it in two, hoping that it would fix the problem. The Western Roman Empire did not survive, the Eastern Roman Empire did survive and was known as the Byzantine Empire, which revived Greek and Roman culture. The capital of the Byzantine Empire was Constantinople. Constantinople survived because of its location which connected Europe to Asia.