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The Counterculture & Protest 1960 - 1980

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Chapter 27. The Counterculture & Protest 1960 - 1980. The Youth Movement. Challenged: Political & social system Conventional Middle Class values Inspired by the Beats (of the 1950’s) Originated with “Baby Boomers” By 1970- 58.4\% of US 34 years old or younger.

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the youth movement
The Youth Movement
  • Challenged:
    • Political & social system
    • Conventional Middle Class values
    • Inspired by the Beats (of the 1950’s)
    • Originated with “Baby Boomers”
    • By 1970- 58.4% of US 34 years old

or younger.

    • 1960-1965- enrollment in 4 year colleges

went from 3.1 million to 5 million.

* (1959)Students for a Democratic Society (SDS)

  • 1962*Port Huron Statement (Tom Hayden)
    • Anti-Vietnam War
    • Anti-Big Corporation & Big Government
    • Anti-Apathy
    • Also worked against poverty, nuclear power & racism
free speech movement
Free Speech Movement
  • *Mario Savio (leader)
  • UC Berkley limited student publications & recruitment for political causes
  • Dec. 1964- Savio & UC Berkeley students held sit-ins on campus & police arrested 700.
  • Supreme Court said students have a right to free speech and assembly on campus
the counterculture
The Counterculture
  • Mostly white middle class
  • Hippies- rejected society
  • Communes
    • Living & working together away from the rest of society
    • *Haight Ashbury District

Popular destination for

US hippies (San Francisco)

New Religion

    • Unification Church
    • Hare Krishna
decline impact of the counterculture
Decline & Impact of the Counterculture
  • After a few years the counterculture declined.


  • Hippie communes became dangerous
  • Drug addiction =(death & overdoses)
  • Many hippies got older & moved on

Impactof the Counterculture.

  • Fashion- wore cheap surplus clothes from earlier decades, long hair= rejected consumerism
  • Music- made use of folk music & rhythm & blues.
  • 1969-Woodstock (up state NY)- outdoor music festival featured singers Bob Dylan, The Who etc.
  • Pop Art
    • Contained elements of popular culture
  • Andy Warhol
    • Pop artist
    • Famous people
  • Beatles
  • Bob Dylan
  • Jimi Hendrix
  • All of these created a bigger generation gap between old & young
  • Woodstock
    • Upstate NY August 1969
    • Festival of music
a renewed women s movement
A Renewed Women’s Movement
  • 19th Amendment (1920) granted women the right to vote.
  • Next 40 years, women’s movement had little influence.
  • WWII- women given greater opportunities for work outside home.
  • Post WWII- society emphasized a homemaking role.
  • 1960 –1/3 of married women were part of the paid workforce.
women and the workplace
Women and the Workplace
  • Newspaper ads separated jobs by gender.
  • Banks denied women credit.
  • Women paid less than men for doing same work.
  • President’s Commission on the Status of Women (Kennedy)
  • 1963- Equal Pay Act passed.
the feminist movement
The Feminist Movement
  • Feminism
    • belief that men and women should be equal politically, economically and socially
  • *The Feminine Mystique
    • By *Betty Friedan – best selling book
    • Exposed sense of dissatisfaction women had with the traditional role.
    • Title VII: of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 outlawed job discrimination based on gender
  • National Organization for Women (NOW)
    • Demanded greater educational opportunities (formed by Friedan & others).
the feminist movement1
The Feminist Movement
  • Gloria Steinem: author & public figure - one of the movement’s leading figures (editor—Ms. Magazine).
  • *Title IX: prohibited federally funded schools from discriminating against women
  • 1973- Roe v Wade: ruled that the states could not regulate abortion in the first 3 months of pregnancy because it was a time that would violate the woman’s right to privacy- abortion is legal!
  • Right to Life: anti-abortion movement
  • Equal Rights Amendment: would have protected women against discrimination – it failed (3 states refused to ratify) opposition –Phyllis Schlafly
african americans
African Americans
  • *Affirmative Action:
    • companies doing business with federal government should actively recruit African American employees to improve social and economic status
  • *University of California Regents v Bakke (1978):
    • ruled schools could use racial criteria as part of their admissions process but couldn’t use fixed quotas
  • Swan v Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education (1970) :
    • upheld the constitutionality of busing – transporting minority students to fully integrate schools
  • White Flight: Whites responded by removing their students from public schools
african americans1
African Americans
  • Jesse Jackson:
    • political leader
    • People United to Save Humanity (PUSH)
    • worked at registering voters, developing African American businesses and educational opportunities
  • Congressional Black Caucus:
    • 1971 African American members of Congress organized to more clearly represent the legislative concerns of blacks
hispanic americans
Hispanic Americans
  • *Cesar Chavez:
    • fought for farm workers for increased wages, union recognition and better benefits
    • Created United Farm Workers
  • La RazaUnida (1969):
    • political party begun in Texas to represent Hispanics
  • Bilingualism:
    • teaching in Spanish while also learning English
    • argument - they would be at a competitive disadvantage with English speakers because difficult to understand in another language
  • 1968 Bilingual Education Act:
    • directed schools to set up classes for immigrants in their own language as they were learning English
native americans
Native Americans
  • Declaration of Indian Purpose:
    • called for policies to create greater economic opportunities on reservations
    • Instead of wanting assimilation they wanted more independence.
  • Indian Civil Rights Act:
    • guaranteed reservation residents the protection of the Bill of Rights
  • American Indian Movement:
    • a more militant group that made stands at Alcatraz and Wounded Knee in 1970’s.
  • Indian Self-Determination and Educational Assistance Act:
    • increased funds for Native American education
    • expanded local control in administering federal programs
save the earth
Save the Earth
  • *Rachel Carson- *“Silent Spring”- book about pesticide’s effect on the environment.
  • 1970- Earth Day:
    • Day devoted to addressing nation’s environmental concerns

Environmental Protection Agency:

    • created in 1970 by Nixon –
    • set and enforced pollution standards, promoted research and coordinated state activities

Clean Air Act:

    • 1970 Nixon established emissions standards for factories and automobiles & ordered industries to comply with standards
  • Clean Water Act: 1972
    • restricted the discharge of pollutants into the nations’ lakes and rivers
  • Endangered Species Act:
    • 1973 established measures for saving threatened animal species
  • Three Mile Island: March 28, 1979
    • nuclear facility outside of Harrisburg Pennsylvania overheated after its cooling system failed & low levels of radiation escaped
  • National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act:
    • Ralph Nader in 1966
    • regulated the automobile industry for the first time in safety