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Women and Migration: Promoting health all through the migration experience . Blandine Mollard – Project Officer, Gender Issues Coordination, IOM. Hacet t epe University Symposium-11 march 2010. Overview of women’s migration today Health challenges and opportunities posed by women’s migration
Women and Migration: Promoting health all through the migration experience
Blandine Mollard – Project Officer, Gender Issues Coordination, IOM
Hacettepe University Symposium-11 march 2010
Health challenges and opportunities posed by women’s migration
IOM responses and ideas for further action
Africa(46.8%): steady increase in female migrants
Asia (44.6%):Femalemigration dominate in some countries.
Europe (52.3%):in 2010 female migrants will represent of all migrants
Northern and Latin America and the Caribean: 50%
Arab Region: male migrants far outnumber women
Turkey: in 2010, 52% of all migrants will be womenAt the regional level: high disparities
Labour migrants (regular or irregular), long-term, seasonal/temporary
Secondary migrants within family regrouping
Refugees or asylum seekers
Victims of traffickingHow do women migrate?
Migrate more and more independently
Forced movements hold gender specific risks for women
Although women are affected by same push and pull factors as men:
Choice of migration channels– priority to smugglers, no information on asylum grounds,…
Vulnerability to human trafficking, betrayal in the family/intimate partner.
Levels of gender inequalities in CoO condition the migration experience.
High risk of physical and sexual abuse from smugglers, other migrants, law enforcement and border management officials,…
Reduced acess to hygiene facilities. No access to contraceptives or reproductive health services. Increased risk of HIV/AIDS or STI.
In detention or in case of deportation, high risks of rape and increased vulnerability for pregnant women.
Gender influences the type of legal status migrant women enjoy
and the opportunities to integrate to the labour markertGender as a determinant of migrants’ health status
Migrant women’s immigration status is often tied to their partner, father, or employer, creating dependance and reluctance to report domestic violence. Irregular migrants reluctant to acess health providers by fear of deportation.
Migrant women concentrated in occupations poorly regulated, high level of health risks and injuries and exposure to psychological, physical and sexual abuse.
integrate socially in host societyGender as a determinant of migrants’ health status
Language proficiency and cultural barriers will impact the acess to health information and services.
Lack of migrant-friendly health services have disproportionate impact on women.
Lack of family planning services increase likelihood of unwanted pregnancies
Forced and early marriages
Female genital mutilationsGender as a determinant of migrants’ health status
Those health consequences can strongly impede their integration
Migrants’ remittances support health, food and education expenses, thus improving the well being of communities left-behind
New roles and behaviours for migrants and families left behind:
Income provider, greater participation in community decision-making;
Migration triggers new norms in migrants’ families: Higher age of marriage, lower fertility, greater educational expectation for girls, greater labour force participation. UNDP Human Development Report 2009
Change of status of women within the household can lead to better health for her and her children but can also trigger gender-based violence.Migration brings opportunities for health
Preventing human trafficking:
Through its programme, IOM estimates a third of victims of trafficking are mothers.
IOM launched a nationwide public information campaign to raise awareness of human trafficking’s impact on children and families.
An advertisement entitled “Have You Seen my Mother?” was broadcasted on TV channels and cinemas throughout Turkey.
IOM Turkey has facilitated and been managing the government owned 157 helpline for trafficked persons since May 2005. As of February 2010, 157 helpline coordinated the rescue of 165 trafficked persons in Turkey.
Research and guidance:
Caring for Trafficked Persons: Guidance for Health Providers
Training health providers
Adressing Female Genital Mutilation
In Geneva, as part of a project to address Female Genital Mutilation among 4 migrant communities, IOM has been informing and sensitizing health professionals.
A symposium was held
-to inform them of the consequences of FGM on women’s and girls’ reproductive, sexual and mental health,
-to encourage the exchange of best practices in providing the best medical care, psychological support
-to build networks for the protection of girls.
Advocate for the inclusion of migrant women in policies and programs
Remove barriers to SRH services for migrant women – regardless of immigration status
Improve health response for the most vulnerable migrants (women migrants who are victims of violence)
Develop initiatives to eradicate the culture of violence against women, as a root cause of trafficking and exploitation of women and girls.
Train health providers to respond to GBV among migrants
Promote regular migration for the benefit of allKey recommendations
Migration is not a health risk but the conditionssurrounding the migration process can lead to increased vulnerability
Need to tackles problems in accessing comprehensive reproductive health services affect the health of migrant womenKey messages
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