TESOL Methods Week 9
Today’s Schedule • Final presentation • Midterm presentation review • Review of Alternative Methods • 16 Features of Good Materials • 16 Features Discussion • Halloween fun times!
The birth of Alternative Approaches and Methods • 1970-1980 major shift in language teaching • Growing interest in communicative approaches • shift from grammar to communication focus • alternative methods include ones developed outside mainstream language teaching • main methods discussed in second half of course (Part III of textbook)
Group discussion • Groups of 2-4 • Complete your midterm handout using any notes from two weeks ago • Main question: which concepts from these methods could be used in your own classroom? Which ideas can be incorporated into your teaching?
16 Features of good materials Brian Tomlinson • Materials should achieve impact • Materials should help learners to feel at ease • Materials should help learners develop confidence • What is being taught should be perceived as relevant and useful • Materials should facilitate learner self-investment and discovery • Learners must be ready to acquire the points being taught • Materials should expose the learners to language in authentic use • Learner’s attention should be drawn to the linguistic features of the input • Materials should provided opportunities to use the TL for communicative purposes • Materials should take into account that the positive effects of instruction are usually delayed • Materials should take into account that learners have different learning styles • Materials should take into account that learners differ in affective attitude • Materials should permit a silent period at the beginning of instruction • Materials should maximize learning potential • Materials should not rely too much on controlled practice • Materials should provide opportunities for outcome feedback
1. Materials should achieve impact Use pictures, subjects, activities, etc. that appeal to students and grab their attention.
2. Materials should help learners to feel at ease • Things that a material developer can do to make Ss feel at ease: • lots of white space • illustrations that learners can relate to • balance Ss academic and emotional needs, so…. • materials seem helpful rather than test like • use active voice rather than passive • Concrete examples and stories that connect to Ss and real world • Language should be inclusive It’s the learner’s language, too! The Target Language shouldn’t make Ss feel inferior
3. Materials should help learners develop confidence • Challenge level (i+1). • Staging and task sequencing • Removing scaffolding and support language • Success builds success and success = confidence
4. What is being taught should be perceived as relevant and useful • Find out what your Ss like and want to learn through needs analysis • Make task and activities “real” & “meaningful” • Allow for Ss personalization of learning • Use games and competitions to create materials that seem relevant
5. Materials should facilitate learner self-investment and discovery • Learning situations are created in which the learning is often implicit • Inductive methods are used • Learner-centered, task-based, learn by doing • Ss-Ss collaboration and peer learning maximized • Teacher Talk Time (TTT) minimized
Classroom that facilitate learner self-investment and discovery often look like this. • Where’s the teacher? Present, but not directly involved.
6. Learners must be ready to acquire the points being taught • Materials are developed so Ts can easily do initial and ongoing assessment • Materials are created with the understanding that Ss learn at different rates, and not all Ss are necessarily ready to acquire what is being taught • Developmental sequence is taken into account
7. Materials should expose the learners to language in authentic use • Authentic Input: listening and reading texts created by native speakers for native speakers • Authentic Output: Tasks and activities that have a real context of use
8. Learner’s attention should be drawn to the linguistic features of the input • Meaning before form • Materials help s to notice gap in inter-language • Recycling of key points or features to assure that Ss notice and acquire • Use enhanced input techniques to drawn Ssattention to salient features of input • Schema activation
9. Materials should provided opportunities to use the TL for communicative purposes • Information and opinion gaps • Surveys • Mingle activities
10. Materials should take into account that the positive effects of instruction are usually delayed • Give students multiple chances to use previously taught language and structures • Peer learning – let students teach each other • Extensive reading • This goes beyond lesson planning = unit planning
11. Materials should take into account that learners have different learning styles • Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences
12. Materials should take into account that learners differ in affective attitude • providing choice of… texts, activities • providing optional extras for highly motivated learners • including opportunities for Ss to discuss… • the value of learning English • their feelings about the course and materials • being aware of the cultural sensitivity of your learners • giving Ss opportunities to connect classroom topics to their own lives • providing roles for reluctant learners who do not want to participate in group work
13. Materials should permit a silent period at the beginning of instruction • Input before output • Peer learning (in TL or L1 to learn TL) • Use TPR (Total Physical Response) • Respond to Qs by using visuals
14. Materials should maximize learning potential Left Brain • uses logic • detail oriented • facts rule • words and language • present and past • math and science • can comprehend • Knowing • Acknowledges • order/pattern perception • knows object name Right Brain • uses feeling • "big picture" oriented • imagination rules • symbols and images • present and future • philosophy & religion • can "get it" (i.e. meaning) • believes • appreciates • spatial perception • knows object function
15. Materials should not rely too much on controlled practice • Opportunities for meaningful use • Remove scaffolding/support and students progress • Allow personalization and creativity
16. Materials should provide opportunities for outcome feedback • If a student isn’t successful communicating, he/she is more likely to gain from a teacher’s feedback than a student whose language is just corrected by the teacher
16 Features discussion • groups of 2-4 • Think back to your midterm presentation… • Which of these features did you use to help your learners? • Which features could use you use to improve your presentation? • If anyone brought their own lesson plan, you can analyze it.
Dirt cake • American Halloween Dessert • Mostly made by the mom’s ofelementary students • Ingredients vary, but mainly include • Crushed Oreos (or other chocolate cookie) • Chocolate pudding • Whipped cream, cream cheese, vanilla pudding, etc.