TESOL 2009 A Framework for Developing Internet-Based Curricula and Course Materials Kapi’olani Community College
Puzzle One • How to infuse language development into a content-based curriculum? • Are we testing what we want the students to learn?
Opportunities Model Crabbe D. (2003) The quality of language learning opportunities. TESOL Quarterly.
Language Acquisition In order to acquire a language and to develop true competency in a language you need to: • Receive input • Produce output • Participate in interactions • Get feedback
In order to acquire a language and to develop true competency in a language you need to: • Rehearse • Understand about language • Understand about learning
OUTPUT mirrors INPUT output input
Ignored students and situations output input STUDENT/LEARNER outtake uptake
Language Development Framework – Opportunities Model INPUT OUTPUT UPTAKE OUTTAKE REHEARSAL FEEDBACK LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
Generic Comprehension “Every reader who comprehends is going beyond the given text to understand it in a truly unique manner. Although a culture tends to share common meanings and any text usually has accepted or bottom-line interpretations, readers also have their own unique remembered images and interpretations of the world and they bring these to their reading.” Pinnell, G.S. (2002) The guided reading lesson – Explaining, supporting, and prompting for comprehension. In (C.C. Block, L. Gambrell, M. Pressley, (Eds.) Improving Comprehension Instruction (pp.111.San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Main Idea Critical View: The main idea is simply one possible meaning available to a reader, usually an officially sanctioned interpretation of a particular text. O’Neill, M. (1993). Teaching literature as cultural criticism. English Quarterly, 25, 19-25.
Puzzle • What is comprehension? • We need students to converge on similar ideas in order to start the language lesson.
Reading Comprehension Literature Reading purpose plays a critical role in the comprehension process. Pichet J.A., & Anderson, R.C. (1977). Taking perspectives on a story. Journal of Educational Psychology, 69, 309-315.
Purposeful Reading They reported on the influence that reading purpose had on the inferences that readers made when reading. Narvaez, D., van den Broek P., & Ruiz, A.B. (1999). Reading purpose, types of text and their influence on think-alouds and comprehension measure. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91 (3), 488-496.
Purposeful Reading Having a purpose means having a reason to read and approaching a text with a particular goal in mind, whether that goal involves learning or entertainment. In both real-world and classroom situations, purpose affects the reader's motivation, interest, and manner of reading. Elizabeth K. Knutson, (1998). Reading with a Purpose: Communicative Reading Tasks for the Foreign Language Classroom. Center for Applied Linguistics:Online Resources: Digests. EDO-FL-98-13.
Comprehensive review of key vocabulary and key concepts – all skills used. Review and assessment of content and language objectives. Writing and Oral activities for feedback Grammar for accuracy or content output Explicit content and language objectives Vocabulary for Comprehension Developing Language for Outtake Grammar for comprehension Vocabulary for expression Purposefulness Scaffolding OUTTAKE UPTAKE FEEDBACK - REHEARSAL INPUT OUTPUT FEEDBACK - REHEARSAL LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
Savvy Language Learner INPUT INTAKE OUT-TAKE OUTPUT FEEDBACK ASSESSMENT Awareness Identification Modification Assessment Reading: 1-Variation in Language 2-Sociolinguistic Rules of Speaking 3-Child Language Acquisition: Phonology 4-Brain Development and learning a Second Language 5- Language Acquisition: The Early Years (Making Connections:Pakenham Capstone Present a language development plan. Films Podcasts Videocasts Short Readings Writing Seminars Poster Sessions
Puzzle - Materials • In order for curriculum to be driven by purposefulness, the instructor in choosing materials needs more flexibility than textbooks offer. • How can we provide this flexibility in materials? • OpenCourseWare Project
Curriculum Design • Theme • Topic • Category • Length • Materials
Overarching, universal concepts that impact the human condition: Environment Education Food Health Care Immigration Language Themes
General content-area perspectives, similar to academic subject areas: Business Health History Politics Science Sociology Topics
Modes / types of information delivery: Activity Blog Podcast Reading Videocast Visual Web site Categories
Number of words (readings, blogs), minutes (podcasts, videocasts) or expected time investment (activities, visuals, web sites): Long Medium Short Length
Materials The items with which students will interact
Online Database Application Three main features / operations: • Add item to database • Search / sort database items • Update database
Puzzle - Activities • How can activities that support the content objectives as well as the language development be easily created?
Practice and Application Interaction Activities Development Framework Strategies/Lesson Delivery Review and Assessment Making Materials Comprehensible Building Background INPUT OUTPUT UPTAKE OUTTAKE REHEARSAL FEEDBACK LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
Practice and Application Interaction ACTIVITIES DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK Strategies/Lesson Delivery Review and Assessment Making Materials Comprehensible Building Background Comprehensive review of key vocabulary and key concepts – all skills used. Review and assessment of content and language objectives. Writing and Oral activities for feedback Grammar for accuracy or content output Explicit content and language objectives Explicit links to students past knowledge and learning Vocabulary for Comprehension Developing Language for Outtake Grammar for comprehension Vocabulary for expression Purposefulness Scaffolding OUTTAKE UPTAKE FEEDBACK - REHEARSAL INPUT OUTPUT FEEDBACK - REHEARSAL LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT