teaching methods a brief synthesis tesol for adults 2009 canada tesol center n.
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TEACHING METHODS A Brief Synthesis TESOL for adults 2009 Canada TESOL Center

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  1. TEACHING METHODSA Brief SynthesisTESOL for adults 2009Canada TESOL Center

  2. The Grammar – Translation Method /Classical Method Goals Ss be able to read literature written in English. Role of Teacher Very traditional, high authority Learning process Translating from English to the native language. Study grammar deductively and memorize rules Apply memorized rules in other examples St-T interaction Mostly T->St / Little St->T or St<->St Language viewed As superior to spoken language Culture viewed As consisting of literature and the fine art Primary skills Vocabulary and grammar -> Reading and writing Language in class St’s native language Evaluation Written tests where Sts are basically asked to translate St’s errors T supply correct answer soon Techniques used * Translation of a literary passage – spoken or written * Reading comprehension questions – info scanning & inferences based on understanding * Antonyms / Synonyms * Cognates – (for languages that keeps similarity to English) – To recognize cognates * Deductive application of rule – apply learnt grammar rules to different examples * Fill-in-the-blanks – words, prepositions, verbs in correct tense. * Memorization – vocabulary and grammar rules * Composition – based on a topic

  3. The Direct Method Goals Ss be able to how to communicate and think in English. Role of Teacher Sts less passive than “the grammar/trans meth”; T& St as partners Learning process Meaning is associated directly in English / NO translations Syllabus based upon situations or topics NO grammar rules are given St-T interaction T <-> St / St<-> St Language viewed As primarily spoken, no written Culture viewed As consisting of history of people, of daily lives Primary skills Vocabulary emphasized over grammar / Basically oral Language in class ONLY English in class Evaluation Based in using the language, both orally and written St’s errors T help Sts self-correct errors whenever need Techniques used Reading aloud Questions & answers exercise Getting Sts self-correct – eliciting Conversation practice – Questions may contain grammar sturct ./ Sts practice each other Fiil-in-blanks – induced grammar rules included Complete missing info – by pictures, etc Sts are asked orally provide necessary info Paragraph writing

  4. The Audio-Lingual Method Goals Ss be able to use English communicatively. Role of Teacher Orchestra leader- direct, control and good model for imitation Learning process Based on behavioral psychology Imitation – repetition – drilling based on a pattern in a dialogue Oral practice followed by reading & writing work St-T interaction Initially T->St / Later T<-> St & St<->St Language viewed Every language has its unique system / each level has its pattern Culture viewed As everyday behavior & lifestyle of people Primary skills First listening & speaking; later reading & writing Sound system & grammar patterns priorized Language in class ONLY English in class Evaluation St’s errors Techniques used Dialogue memorization – thru mimicry, role play, performing the dialogue Backward build-up (expansion) drill – cracking down long sentences in part, later make whole sent. Repetition drill Chain drill Single-slot substitution drill / Multiple-slot substitution drill / transformation drill Q & A drill Complete the dialogue – fill in blanks Grammar game

  5. The Communicative Language Teaching Goals Ss . Role of Teacher O Learning process B Ie ork St-T interaction St Language viewed ern Culture viewed e Primary skills g Language in class ONLY English in class Evaluation St’s errors Techniques used Dia