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Innovation & Industry. American Industrial Growth. Factories increase production New tools and production methods for larger numbers of goods Mass production Assembly lines Long work days Transformation of the food Industry Methods of processing food for shipping

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american industrial growth
American Industrial Growth
  • Factories increase production
    • New tools and production methods for larger numbers of goods
    • Mass production
    • Assembly lines
    • Long work days
  • Transformation of the food Industry
    • Methods of processing food for shipping
  • Railroads expand markets and shipping for resources
natural resources coal
Natural Resources—Coal
  • Abundant resources help fuel growth
  • Coal mines on Eastern Seaboard –fuel for powering steam locomotives and factories
forests riverways
Forests & Riverways
  • LUMBER - Thick forests cut down and used for construction
  • Riverways transported resources to cities
discovery of oil
Discovery of Oil
  • World’s first oil well drilled in 1859
    • Titusville, Pennsylvania
    • Edwin Drake
  • Drilled Oil cheap to produce/easy transport
  • Oil industry grew quickly—encouraged growth in kerosene & gasoline industries
oil before drake
Oil before Drake
  • Oil used for light and fuel
  • Oil obtained from boiled down whale blubber
    • Time consuming
    • Scarcity of whales
a growing workforce
A Growing Workforce
  • Large numbers of immigrants come to the United States after the Civil War
  • 1 million/year by 1900
  • Reasons for Immigration
    • Political upheavals
    • Religious Discrimination
    • Crop failures
immigrants the workforce
Immigrants & the Workforce
  • Large willing workforce
  • Provided cheap labor
  • Prepared to move frequently
entrepreneurs
Entrepreneurs
  • Flourish in system of Capitalism & Free Enterprise
  • Fuel industrialization by investing in products or ideas to make a profit
  • Invested in factories, railroads, & mines
rags to riches
Rags to Riches
  • Horatio Alger, Jr. – an American author
  • Stories of poor boys who worked hard and gained wealth and fame
  • Anyone who works hard can escape poverty
government business
Government & Business
  • Gave free land to railroad builders
  • Use of protective tariffs
  • Laissez-faire policies
  • Patent—granted by the federal government to an inventor for exclusive rights over their invention
  • Encourages invention and innovation
slide14

1876—Established research lab at Menlo Park, NJ

  • Received more than 1,000 patents for new inventions
    • Battery for electric car
    • Mechanical voice recorder
    • Motion Picture Camera
    • Improved the Light Bulb

THOMAS EDISON

george westinghouse
George Westinghouse
  • Technology for sending electricity over long distances
  • Powered homes, factories, and city streets
  • Patent for train air brakes in 1869
alexander graham bell
Alexander Graham Bell
  • 1876—patented the telephone
  • Spread quickly
  • By 1881, more than 34,000 miles of wire strung
  • Long distance lines connected cites in the Northeast & Midwest
  • More than 1 million telephones in the United States by 1900
  • 1896—Guglielmo Marconi invented wireless telegraph
henry bessemer steel
Henry Bessemer & Steel
  • Bessemer Process - developed in the 1850s in England by Henry Bessemer
  • Process for purifying iron—resulted in strong and lightweight steel!
steel and innovation
Steel and Innovation
  • Quickly adapted by Americans
    • out producing British in steel manufacture by 1890
  • Steel used for skyscrapers, elevators, suspension bridges
    • roadway suspended by steel cables
  • Brooklyn Bridge (1883)
  • Flatiron building(1902)
    • one of first skyscrapers
elisha otis
ELISHA OTIS

Worked on the elevator

system in the U.S.

Created a system for a

braking system for the

elevator

His invention made

skyscrapers practical

Steel made them possible!!!!

granville woods the steam boiler furnace
Granville Woods & the Steam Boiler Furnace
  • 1884
    • Improved steam-powered furnace for running trains

1887

Telegraph system for trains

  • More than 60 patents—mostly relating to trains and streetcars
gustavus swift
Gustavus Swift
  • Meatpacker
  • Developed refrigerated cars for food
  • Pioneered use of animal by-products for items such as soap, glue, & fertilizer
c f dowd s time zones
C.F. Dowd’s Time Zones
  • Throughout the 1800s, most towns set clocks independently
  • Time differences made it hard to set train schedules
  • In 1884, delegates from 27 countries divided the globe into 24 time zones.
  • Railroads adopted this system
mass production
Mass Production
  • Growing demands from the American and European consumer
  • Need for quickly and cheaply developed products
  • Machinery and systems for making many products once done by hand
exports
Exports
  • By the 1880s, Americans dominated international markets with grain, steel, and textiles
  • Fueled the expansion of American economy
farming and society
Farming and Society
  • Farms became mechanized
    • Reduced need for farm laborers
  • Many farmers moved to urban areas
    • Added to growing workforce
    • Dependent upon cash wages to buy food
    • Higher cost of living
concerns for the environment
Concerns for the Environment
  • Industrial waste, soil erosion, and dust storms
    • Fueled concerns about protecting the environment & natural resources
  • Congress responded by setting aside land
    • Yellowstone National Park (1872)