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INNOVATION-TRIZ,INC. THE INTEGRATION AND USE OF TRIZ WITH OTHER INNOVATION AND ASSESSMENT TOOLS American Creativity Association Houston, TX April 2, 2004 Jack Hipple, Principal Innovation-TRIZ, Inc. Tampa, FL, USA www.innovation-triz.com OR…..

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slide1

INNOVATION-TRIZ,INC.

THE INTEGRATION AND USE OF TRIZ WITH OTHER INNOVATION AND ASSESSMENT TOOLS

American Creativity Association

Houston, TX

April 2, 2004

Jack Hipple, Principal

Innovation-TRIZ, Inc.

Tampa, FL, USA

www.innovation-triz.com

slide2
OR…..

How can we more effectively integrate TRIZ into the organizational, social, and problem-solving structure into which it is being placed?

background
BACKGROUND
  • TRIZ is a powerful “left brained” problem solving tool used to solve product design, engineering design, and organizational problems
  • Based on patterns of invention in the global patent literature
  • Brain and software based
  • Most problems have already been solved if one gets rid of jargon and ego
  • Bias---idea generation is only necessary if we have a “problem” (how to improve, how to replace, are problems)
what we frequently find
WHAT WE FREQUENTLY FIND...

There is an established process or assessment tool in place with which TRIZ must collaborate or compete

  • Myers Briggs
  • Lateral Thinking™ and Six Hats™
  • Kirton KAI
  • CPS/Brainstorming
  • DFSS/Six Sigma
  • QFD

Lateral Thinking and Six Hats are registered trademarks of APTT and Edward DeBono org.

if we don t consider the existing tools and environment
IF WE DON’T CONSIDER THE EXISTING TOOLS AND ENVIRONMENT…..
  • TRIZ implementation may be delayed
  • Implementation may be resisted by the organization
  • Not used to its full effectiveness
agenda overview
AGENDA OVERVIEW
  • Review of TRIZ
  • Integration with other creativity and assessment tools
    • CPS, Six Hats, MBTI
  • Integration with other business and enterprise programs
    • Lean mfg., QFD, Six Sigma
slide7

BEFORE WE START….LET’S BRAINSTORM

    • MACHINE REPLACES MAN
  • CASE STUDY
  • A robot was brought to a plant to operate a machine. After it was rigged up and switched on, the elderly worker who had operated the machine for years was amazed at seeing the nimble “iron man” performing all the necessary steps.
  • A half an hour later, however, the robot came to a standstill, to the bewilderment of the service team of electronic engineers. What happened? As it turned out, some chips had fallen from the workpiece into the moving elements of the machine. This situation where a human worker would simply flip the chips away with a broom and continue working brought the robot to a deadlock. The engineers cleaned the machine with a broom, switched on the robot…only to see the robot stop again. How could this problem be solved? Obviously, one cannot attach a human worker with a broom to the robot……
  • Source: TRIZ: The Right Solution at the Right Time, p3, used with permission
the baker s view vs a mechanical engineer s

INNOVATION-TRIZ,INC.

THE BAKER’S VIEW VS. A MECHANICAL ENGINEER’S

The Waissenberg Effect

When the motion of certain liquids is altered, the liquid achieves a highly plastic state. This state is caused by stress which is normal to the plane of the altered motion. For example, if a rotating shaft emerges from a pool of liquid, the liquid will rise along the shaft. This effect is observed in solutions, in molten polymers, and in gels of low molecular weight. The effect is used to develop extruders that do not use spiral impellers. A characteristic of this effect is that, as the speed of motion increases, the stability of the flow decreases

slide11

PATTERNS OF INVENTION

Processing Sweet Peppers

what is the operator problem solving principle
WHAT IS THE “OPERATOR”?(PROBLEM SOLVING PRINCIPLE?)

“Slowly raise pressure and suddenly reduce it”, OR even more generally, “store energy and release it”

  • A path to a solution
  • An approach to solving a problem
  • A direction towards an answer
slide13

PATTERNS OF INVENTION

  • Removing stems from bell peppers
  • Removing shells form sunflower seeds
  • Cleaning filters
  • Unpacking parts wrapped in protective paper
  • Splitting diamonds along micro-cracks
  • (+27 years after pepper patent)
  • Producing sugar powder from sugar crystals
  • Explosive depulping
thinking analogically without an ego tough
THINKING ANALOGICALLY(WITHOUT AN EGO---TOUGH!!)

THE WORLD’S PROBLEMS

THE WORLD’S SOLUTIONS

MY PROBLEM

MY SOLUTION

jargon a barrier to creative thinking defalcation

JARGON—A BARRIER TO CREATIVE THINKING“DEFALCATION”

“The purpose is to reduce/eliminate defalcationwhen criminals use false ID to impersonate real customers”

Does anyone know what this word means?

What jargon do you use?

What does it mean?

cutting across all breakthrough inventions and patterns

CUTTING ACROSS ALL BREAKTHROUGH INVENTIONS AND PATTERNS

Systems become more ideal over time through the use of unrecognized or underutilized resources

slide24

LET’S REVISIT THE NEW MACHINE

    • MACHINE REPLACES MAN
  • CASE STUDY
  • A robot was brought to a plant to operate a machine. After it was rigged up and switched on, the elderly worker who had operated the machine for years was amazed at seeing the nimble “iron man” performing all the necessary steps.
  • A half an hour later, however, the robot came to a standstill, to the bewilderment of the service team of electronic engineers. What happened? As it turned out, some chips had fallen from the workpiece into the moving elements of the machine. This situation where a human worker would simply flip the chips away with a broom and continue working brought the robot to a deadlock. The engineers cleaned the machine with a broom, switched on the robot…only to see the robot stop again. How could this problem be solved? Obviously, one cannot attach a human worker with a broom to the robot……
  • Source: TRIZ: The Right Solution at the Right Time, p3, used with permission
secondary problems one of the keys to breakthrough inventions and achieving ideality

SECONDARY PROBLEMS--ONE OF THE KEYS TO BREAKTHROUGH INVENTIONS AND ACHIEVING IDEALITY

“That’s a good idea, but………

“The ideal solution would be….., but I can’t achieve it because….

how do we resolve and handle contradictions

INNOVATION-TRIZ,INC.

HOW DO WE RESOLVE AND HANDLE CONTRADICTIONS?

slide28

MAPPING CONTRADICTIONS

FUNCTION: JOIN PHYSICAL OBJECT

Infinitely

re-usable

Zipper

Lock-nut

Adaptability

velcro

braid wire

rope

paper-clip

Self-tapping

screw

Post-it

Lock-nut

Friction

bond

epoxy

MIG/TIG

weld

Paper glue

staple

braze

One-time

nail

Required Strength of join

Used by permission of D. Mann, CreaTRIZ

slide29

SYSTEM EVOLUTION TOWARD

IDEALITY

Contradiction Elimination

Infinitely

Place your solution on the graph of

re

-

usable

Direction

Main Useful Attributes to help

Identify opportunities

Zipper

Lock

-

nut

Adaptability

velcro

braid wire

rope

paper

-

clip

Self

-

tapping

screw

Post

-

it

Lock

-

nut

Friction

MIG/TIG

epoxy

bond

Paper glue

staple

braze

One

-

time

weld

nail

Required Strength of join

CLASS EXAMPLES?

Used by permission of D. Mann, CreaTRIZ

slide32

CONTRADICTION TABLE

  • Possible contradictions represented in 39 x 39 table
  • Intersections of contradicting rows and columns are references to 40 inventive principles for contradiction elimination

1

2

14

38

39

Undesired

Result

(Degraded

Feature)

Strength

Weight of

Nonmoving Object

Weight of

Moving Object

Productivity

Level of

Automation

Feature

to Improve

1

Weight of

Moving Object

28, 27,

18, 40

Weight of

Nonmoving Object

2

28 Replace a mechanical system with

a non mechanical system

27 An inexpensive short-life object instead

of an expensive durable one

18 Mechanical vibration

40 Composite materials

38

Level of

Automation

39

Productivity

Proposed Solution Pathways:

contradictions jet engine
Contradictions - Jet Engine

Boeing wanted to install larger engines on a redesigned 737. A larger air intake would reduce ground clearance to unacceptable levels.

Contradiction: Increasing air intake reduces ground clearance

Control parameter: Intake radius

#5 VS. #3 in table

contradictions jet engine34
Contradictions - Jet Engine

Resolve the contradiction by Separation

Make the radius large laterally for high air flow.

Make the radius smaller downward for high ground clearance.

separation principles for physical contradictions parameters of a system in conflict

INNOVATION-TRIZ,INC.

SEPARATION PRINCIPLES FOR PHYSICAL CONTRADICTIONS (PARAMETERS OF A SYSTEM IN CONFLICT)

slide36

CONTRADICTIONS

Technical

Contradiction

Control Parameter, C

Physical

Contradiction

A

B

So:

C should be high, and

C should be low

®Ideation International

slide37

PHYSICAL CONTRADICTION

  • A characteristic must be higher and lower (self-opposing)
    • Example: An airplane wing should have large area for easy takeoff but small area for higher speed
    • Example: A pen tip should be sharp to draw fine lines, but blunt to avoid tearing the paper
  • A characteristic must be present and absent
    • Example: For sandblasting the abrasive must be present (to abrade) but is not wanted on (or in) the product
    • Example: Aircraft landing gear are needed for landing but undesired in flight

®Ideation International

slide38

PLATING METAL PARTS

  • To plate metal parts with nickel they were placed in a bath of nickel salt. The bath was heated to increase the productivity of the process. However, heating reduced the stability of the salt solution and it started to decompose.

®Ideation International

contradictions
CONTRADICTIONS...
  • Functional?
  • Physical?
slide40

CONVERTING TECHNICAL CONTRADICTIONS TO PHYSICAL CONTRADICTIONS

  • Technical Contradiction
    • Heating increases productivity (A), but wastes material (B)
    • Control parameter is temperature
  • Physical Contradiction
    • Temperature (C) should be high to increase productivity and low to avoid waste

A

B

Control Parameter, C

®Ideation International

slide41

PRINCIPLES OF SEPARATION

  • TRIZ seeks to eliminate the physical contradiction by separating the two contradictory requirements
    • Separation in space
    • Separation in time
    • Separation between the parts and the whole
    • Separation upon condition
slide42

SEPARATION IN TIME

  • A characteristic is made larger at one time and smaller at another
  • A characteristic is present at one time and absent at another
    • Example: Concrete piles must be pointed for easy driving but not pointed to support a load. The piles are made with pointed tips which are destroyed after driving, via an embedded explosive.
    • Example: Aircraft wings are longer for takeoff, and then pivot back for high speed flight.
    • Example: Consider the problem of sand accumulation with abrasive sandblasting. An effective solution is to use dry ice chips as the abrasive. After abrading, the chips will simply disappear by sublimation.

®Ideation International

slide43

SEPARATION IN SPACE

  • A characteristic is made larger in one place and smaller in another
  • A characteristic is present in one place and absent in another
    • Example: Submarines which pull sonar detectors drag the detectors at the end of several thousand feet of cable to separate the detector from the noise of the submarine
    • Example: Bifocal glasses

®Ideation International

slide44

SEPARATION BETWEEN PARTS AND THE WHOLE

  • A characteristic has one value at the system level and the opposite value at the component level
  • A characteristic exists at the system level but not at the component level (or vice versa)
    • Example: A bicycle chain is rigid at the micro-level for strength, and flexible at the macro-level.
    • Example: Epoxy resin and hardener are liquid until mixed, then they solidify.

®Ideation International

slide45

A “SOFT” EXAMPLE

  • Example: A business should be large and small
    • Large for profits and resources
    • Small for flexibility
  • Solution: Formation of a conglomerate of small independent organizations under one umbrella

®Ideation International

slide46

SEPARATION UPON CONDITION

  • A characteristic is high under one condition and low under another
  • A characteristic is present under one condition and absent under another
    • Example: A kitchen sieve is porous with regard to water and solid with regard to food.
    • Example: Water is “soft if entered at a low speed. However, it one jumps into the same water from a height of 10 meters, the water feels considerably harder. Thus, the speed of the body’s interaction with the water is the condition to be considered when applying this principle.

®Ideation International

slide47
Which separation principle was used to solve the plating solution problem and what was the design concept?
slide48

PLATING METAL PARTS

  • To plate metal parts with nickel they were placed in a bath of nickel salt. The bath was heated to increase the productivity of the process. However, heating reduced the stability of the salt solution and it started to decompose.

®Ideation International

slide49

SEPARATION IN SPACE

  • In the nickel plating of parts, increased temperature is necessary only in proximity to the parts. To accomplish this, the parts themselves may be heated, rather than the solution.

®Ideation International

-

intersecting highways
Intersecting Highways

?

Two major highways are proposed to intersect. Traffic cannot flow on both highways without conflict.

State the technical contradiction:

State as a physical contradiction:

integraton with cps brainstorming
INTEGRATON WITH CPS/BRAINSTORMING
  • Use the concepts of ideality and resources to help in idea generation
  • TRIZ 40 Principles (proven to solve problems) as random stimulus
  • Express problem as a contradiction and then use contradiction table and separation principles directly without going through the entire TRIZ process
  • Use the separation principles
  • Still need the deferral in judgment—in TRIZ we try to characterize this as just another contradiction
connections with qfd
CONNECTIONS WITH QFD
  • Resolution of contradictions in product performance requirements
  • Combining identifying with solving
  • Combined matrices
  • Getting clients to discuss their needs and conflicts in terms of physical aspects--not using their industry specific jargon
integrating triz with qfd
INTEGRATING TRIZ WITH QFD
  • The QFD environment
    • Customer focused
    • Understand the context of use
    • Know who the customers are
    • Designs are manufacturable
    • Front loading of resources to define needs
        • J. Terninko,Step by Step QFD
slide55

X

x

Customer

Team

Calculation

Measurement

XX

Sources of Data

X

Based on material from “Step by Step QFD” © 1995, John TerninkoUsed by permission

qfd triz indicators
QFD TRIZ Indicators
  • Section 8 (roof)--Eliminate conflicts
  • Section 4—Develop performance measures
  • Section 5
    • Empty rows—Develop conceptual solutions
    • Empty columns—Eliminate unnecessary things
  • Section 7—Develop measurement methods
customer focus
CUSTOMER FOCUS
  • Get your customers to express their needs in generic, physical terms--not in industry jargon
  • Use customers at different levels

™IWB is a registered trademark of Ideation International

manufacturable designs
MANUFACTURABLE DESIGNS
  • Get the issues and contradictions expressed clearly, precisely, and in physical terms
  • Do not run away from ideality if at first it seems unachievable--identify the secondary problems
  • Involve your engineering and manufacturing people in the process
overlap with basic lean principles
OVERLAP WITH BASIC LEAN PRINCIPLES
  • Ideal Final Result/Ideality: no wasted time, resources, inventory, uniform load
  • Resources: use underutilized time; eliminate waste (materials and time)
  • Identification of contradictions: barriers in implementation of concepts, waste
  • Problem solving: ideality, resources, contradiction table, TRIZ software, cause and effect diagrams and analysis
  • Nine box: above and below re: suppliers and customers
  • Risk: “reverse” TRIZ for failure prediction
pill manufacturing a real example
PILL MANUFACTURING—A REAL EXAMPLE
  • Situation: A pill manufacturer is faced with a need for cost reduction. A labor reduction is required to stay competitive. Engineering has evaluated the manufacturing process and determined that by eliminating three inspectors at the end of the production line they can justify an investment of $150,000 for a video inspection system. These inspectors are checking for chip damage at on the circumference of the pills (see attached sketch). Efforts to correct the damage to the pills during production has been going on for years. There are 15 stages of manufacturing and each has been optimized to less than 1% of scrap which exceeds industry standards. The video inspection system will provide a 33% return on investment which meets management’s financial criteria. Unfortunately, money is tight and management has hired your company to find a lower cost solution. (See attached layout of inspection area)
  • Objective: Find a nearly ideal solution -- the function is performed without the system.
  • Actions: Define the function and the system. Define the problem in terms of ideality, i.e., what should happen? What are the resources and physical, chemical and geometric effects that are readily available? Find a solution to the problem.

® Ideation International

slide63

PILL INSPECTION WORKSTATION

Vibratory feed move pills around an internal spiral to top of vibratory bowl where the pills are discharge and slide down an incline plane onto a conveyor. As the pills go by, the inspectors identify and remove the damaged pills.

Damaged Pills

Conveyor

Trash Can

® Ideation International

system proposal and challenge
SYSTEM PROPOSAL AND CHALLENGE
  • Replace inspectors with a $200K video inspection system
  • High return project, but capital is not available
  • Boss says, that’s a great idea, but “Find another way!!”
good pills bad pills
GOOD PILLS/BAD PILLS
  • What is IDEALITY/IDEA FINAL RESULT?
  • What are the RESOURCES we have?
six sigma plus triz
SIX SIGMA PLUS TRIZ
  • The Six Sigma goal and ideality
    • Six Sigma, by itself, does not solve problems
    • Ask “why?” five times
    • Make sure you are looking at the LEVEL of the problem solution!
    • What is the fundamental issue/contradiction not allowing the jump from 4-5 sigma to 6 sigma?
lines of evolution

LINES OF EVOLUTION

PIE CHARTS OF OPPORTUNITY

slide71

Evolutionary Potential

‘Evolutionary Limit’

of component relative

to predicted evolution

trends

Current evolutionary

position of component

for a given trend

(Each spoke in the evolutionary potential radar plot

represents one of the known technology trends identified

by TRIZ researchers)

slide72

Evolutionary Benchmarking

‘competitor’

system

‘my’

system

(radar plots for any system delivering the same basic FUNCTION)

slide73

Evolutionary Potential Hierarchy

1

5

10

2

4

Bearing Assembly

3

2

9

3

1

0

8

4

7

5

Ball Carrier Inner Race Outer Race etc

1

6

1

1

1

10

2

5

5

5

10

2

10

2

4

10

2

4

4

4

3

3

3

2

9

3

2

2

2

9

3

9

3

9

3

1

1

1

0

0

0

0

8

4

8

4

8

4

8

4

7

5

7

5

7

5

7

5

6

6

6

6

application at different levels
APPLICATION AT DIFFERENT LEVELS
  • The principles of TRIZ (and other tools!) can be applied at different system levels from a competitive standpoint
  • Need to understand what those levels are and how they might affect us
  • Who are potential competitors at DIFFERENT levels
slide75

LEVEL OF PROBLEM ATTACK

(NINE BOX LOOK)

Past

Future

Past

Future

Past

Future

Present

Supersystem

System

Subsystem

how triz problem solving sessions are normally run
HOW TRIZ PROBLEM SOLVING SESSIONS ARE NORMALLY RUN
  • Problem definition ahead of time, frequently using a pre-defined form
  • Ideality, contradictions, resources identified
  • Su-Field or software models constructed
  • Contradiction tables, standard solutions, or software examples/operators are used to stimulate ideas
  • Same for non-technical problems
assessment tools
ASSESSMENT TOOLS
  • Myers Briggs/16 Types, etc.
    • Measures peoples’ style of interacting socially with each other
    • Extroverted/introverted, sensing/intuitive, feeling/thinking, judging/perceiving (I.e. INTP)
    • Most organizations are familiar with and use this tool
    • Most people know their “profile”
    • Little pro-active use
how to use mbti info
HOW TO USE MBTI INFO
  • N,S ∆
    • Hard data input as well as “soft” data (people side) input
  • T,F ∆
    • Impact of ideas, technical/organizational/people
  • J,P ∆
    • Short term vs. long term ideas, separation of groups
assessment tools80
ASSESSMENT TOOLS
  • Kirton KAI
    • Measures an individual’s PROBLEM SOLVING STYLE (adaptive to innovative)
    • Not as well known, but more relevant to TRIZ problem solving, as it relates to problem solving style and not social style
    • Scale of result 32-160, 2 sigma deviation 70-110, friction at 15∆, warfare at 30-35∆
slide81

AN EXTREME ADAPTOR

“Why, they’re lighting their arrows...Can they do that?”

slide82

AN EXTREME INNOVATOR

“Wait! Wait! Listen to me!We don’t just have to be sheep!”

relationship between kai and triz
RELATIONSHIP BETWEENKAI AND TRIZ
  • TRIZ provides assistance to both ends of the KAI spectrum (only tool I am aware of that can do this)
  • KAI provides a way to segregate and optimize the output from TRIZ problem solving
how does triz help
HOW DOES TRIZ HELP?
  • Provides stimulus (from concepts of ideality, resources, contradictions) to adaptive/low score KAI people who have difficulty generating original ideas on their own
  • Provides structure (via diagrams, models) to innovative/high score KAI people who have difficulty in organizing, structuring, and prioritizing ideas
how can kai be used in a triz session
HOW CAN KAI BE USED IN A TRIZ SESSION?
  • Prior to disclosure of KAI feedback, use to separate group into more adaptive and more innovative people
  • Use in selecting and evaluation of ideas and output from software products
  • Mutual sharing of views of problem(s) vs. style
an example
AN EXAMPLE….
  • Specialty chemical company, $2B sales, 12 participants
  • Strong segmentation in KAI profiles
    • Large group in the 80-85 range (highly adaptive)
    • Large group in the 110-125 range (highly innovative)
process
PROCESS
  • Group divided into adaptive and innovative groups, prior to awareness of individual scores
  • Asked to diagram the same problem with the IWB™ software Problem Formulator™
  • Presented to each other

IWB and Problem Formulator are trademarks of Ideation International

adaptor diagram
ADAPTOR DIAGRAM

Function 7

Function 8

Function 5

Function 2

Function 4

Function 1

Function 3

Function 6

innovator diagram
INNOVATOR DIAGRAM

Function 5

Function 8

Function 3

Function 7

Function 2

Function 4

Function 1

Function 6

discussion which occurred
DISCUSSION WHICH OCCURRED
  • Why do you view the problem that way?
  • Why did you choose these particular ideas to pursue?
  • How can you make any sense out of your diagram?
  • Separation of ideas by interest
the six hats process
THE SIX HATS™ PROCESS
  • Problem solving process is divided into segments where everyone must do the same “type” of thinking at the same time
  • Each person wears the same “hat” at the same time to minimize negative aspects of arguments, etc.
  • One of the most widely used innovation processes in the world--easy to learn and effective for simple to moderately complicated problems
the six hats
THE SIX HATS
  • Blue---meeting process, thinking process
  • White---information that is needed
  • Green---propose ideas, free thinking
  • Black---what is wrong with this idea?
  • Yellow---what is good about this idea?
  • Red---emotional, “gut” feel about idea
deficiency in the process
DEFICIENCY IN THEPROCESS
  • Stimulus for ideation is still limited by the expertise and knowledge in the room
  • Weak, informal problem definition step
  • “Selected” random words used for stimulation (Lateral Thinking™)—thinking about thinking

Lateral Thinking is a registered trademark of APTT and Edward DeBono

when and how to combine triz with this process
WHEN AND HOW TO COMBINETRIZ WITH THIS PROCESS
  • White/information hats
    • Have we identified all the contradictions?
    • A problem definition diagram, such as the Problem Formulator™
  • Green/ideation hat
    • Use of contradiction table, software examples
  • Black/problem hat
    • Use of “reverse” TRIZ technique to proactively identify potential failure routes
  • Yellow/good hat
    • Use ideality thinking and lines of evolution to improve ideas
  • Blue hat
    • Use ISQ™ and Problem Formulator™ to scope the process

ISQ and Problem Formulator are registered trademarks of Ideation International

in conclusion
IN CONCLUSION….
  • All tools have value
  • Using knowledge of individual styles can greatly enhance the TRIZ problem solving process, especially if TRIZ is the “late-comer” to the organization
  • Adding TRIZ or elements of TRIZ to any existing creativity or enterprise process can improve their value and productivity
additional info
ADDITIONAL INFO
  • Slides posted at website,
    • www.innovation-triz.com on Monday
    • Monthly newsletter available (free)
  • TRIZ Journal, free, monthly, www.triz-journal.com
  • Altshuller Institute, www.aitriz.org
    • Annual meeting, Seattle, April 29-May2
  • Books
    • “And Suddenly the Inventor Appeared” (Altshuller)
    • “Hands on Systematic Innovation” (Mann)
    • “Simplified TRIZ” (Rantenen and Domb)