Tourism for development strategy process management
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TOURISM FOR DEVELOPMENT: STRATEGY & PROCESS MANAGEMENT. YES Summit, Nairobi 2006. ARVIND MAYARAM INDIA. TOURISM a Potential Development Driver. Why Tourism Sustainable Livelihood Poverty Alleviation Uplift of Rural Artists Uplift of Rural Artisans Empowerment of Women

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YES Summit,





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TOURISMa Potential Development Driver

Why Tourism

  • Sustainable Livelihood

  • Poverty Alleviation

  • Uplift of Rural Artists

  • Uplift of Rural Artisans

  • Empowerment of Women

  • Improvement in Urban and Rural Infrastructure

  • Better Image, Quality of Life and Attitude of People

  • Revival of Traditional Crafts

  • Heritage Conservation

  • Conservation of Natural Resources

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TOURISM a Potential Development Driver

Significant multiplier effect on the economy

  • Every dollar spent by a tourist changes hands 13 times

  • Every hotel room generates direct employment to 3 and indirect employment to 8 persons

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TOURISMa Potential Development Driver


  • Reducing absolute dependence on agriculture:

    • Revival of traditional arts & crafts, building art, etc.

    • Providing ready marketing opportunities for rural artisans

    • Employment generation during entire year

  • About half a million of artisans employed in Handicraft sector in only one State of Rajasthan

  • Handicraft Exports from one of the States, Rajasthan:

    • 1991-92 Rs. 2800 mn.

    • 2000-01 Rs.43,000 mn.

    • 2004-03 Rs. 100,000 mn.

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TOURISMa Potential Development Driver

TOURISM creates:

  • Jobs in situ-wild life sanctuaries, historical places, beaches, mountains etc. Does not result in migration

  • Creates a large number of semi-skilled jobs for local population

  • Contributes to overall economic development of areas that would otherwise be deprived

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TOURISMIndia: Case Study


Every Rs.1 million ($25,000) invested creates…

  • Tourism (directly) 47.5 Jobs

  • Tourism (indirectly) 89 Jobs

    (sub-sector of hotels and restaurants, transportation etc.)

  • Agriculture 44.6 Jobs

  • Manufacturing 12.6 Jobs

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TOURISMIndia: Case Study



  • Gem & Jewelry US$ 7.40 Bn.

  • Readymade Garments US$ 5.50 Bn.

  • Tourism US$ 3.30 Bn.


  • FDI $ 2.4 bn

  • Tourism $ 2.9 bn

    *2001-02 & 2003-03 figures are not used due to the effect of Sept 11 2001

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  • Image/Visibility

  • Infrastructure

  • Tourism enabled services

  • Heritage conservation and management

  • Tourism friendly environment (non-intrusive, facilitating, safe and secure…)

  • Tourism products

  • Deepening tourist experience (repeat visits/longer stay)

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Tourism Circuit Approach

  • Integrated

  • Tourist, the focal point

  • Circuit development involves creating a circular route to be taken by tourists

  • Based on features of tourist interest throughout the circuit route

  • Driven by infrastructure development

  • FDI can play a major role in inducting capital, technology, managerial skills and marketing

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Foreign Direct Investment (FDI):

  • Augments investible resources

  • Improves technological standards

  • Improves efficiency of the domestic industry

  • Increases competitiveness

  • Introduces ‘latest’ technology

  • Improves allocative efficiency

  • Introduces higher level of technical or ‘X’ efficiency

  • Results in diffusion of technology and knowledge to local firms

  • Leads to labour turnover or ‘reverse engineering’

  • Results in income ‘multiplying’ effect

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  • Could result in cutting into the market of local firms (reduce productivity)

  • Could result in ‘financial leakages’

    • Repatriation of profits

    • Direct channeling of tourists’ expenditure to the home country

    • Remittances by expatriate workers

    • Imports on account of weak host country supply chain

  • In international tourism, cross-border anti-competitive practices may adversely affect smaller tourism service suppliers from developing and least developed countries particularly vulnerable to anti-competitive policies

  • Employment opportunities may not increase for local population because of absence of skilled manpower

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  • Policy/Regulatory Framework

  • Facilitating Institutions

    • Decision-support structure

    • Facilitating organizations

    • HRD institutions

  • Infrastructure:

    • Physical

    • Social

  • Investment Products (Opportunities)

  • Public Private Partnership mode

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Mission for Tourism Development

Efforts to raise tourist arrivals

Aggressive domestic and international marketing

Organizing international tourism events

Awareness about and professional management of heritage and raising resources for it

Ensuring hassle-free and pleasant stay of tourists

Tourism promotion through Internet

Encourage Public Private Partnerships

Rural tourism for generating employment in rural areas


Tourism Policy

Comprehensive Tourism Master Plan

Promoting Private sector investment

Enhancing quality and diversifying tourism products

Development of tourism infrastructure

Aggressive marketing & publicity

Tourism as ‘Industry’

Tourism Trade Regulation Act – to prevent possible exploitation of tourists

HRD for Tourism Sector

Upgrading Tourism Support Services

Improved Connectivity

Preservation of historical and cultural heritage and promoting Heritage Tourism

Promoting Adventure, Wildlife, Eco-Tourism (as applicable)

INITIATIVE: Policy/Regulatory FrameworkTourism Development Mission/Tourism Policy

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To make the country/region “Tourist Friendly”:

Security for tourist, i.e.

Not to be mobbed by beggars, touts, taxi drivers etc.

Not to be cheated-cost / quality

Accessible/reliable Information

Good amenities & reliable services

Cleanliness & hygiene

Heritage conservation





Special attention to tourists by Police

Voluntary Adoption of law



Third Party Inspections


Exit Clause


Declaring building/area/township protected heritage

Construction to be strictly regulated

INITIATIVE: Policy/Regulatory FrameworkTourism (Facilitation) Law

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INITIATIVE: InstitutionsDecision-support Structures

Single Window Clearance System

  • A. Investment Proposals

  • B. Visa applications

  • C. Concessions to commercially use state assets

  • D. Licenses to operate tourism related activities (recurring)

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INITIATIVE: InstitutionsDecision-support Structures

  • Tourism Advisory Council

    • Top political and bureaucratic executives

    • Membership to include tourism trade and industry representatives, experts…

    • To deliberates upon policy initiatives, demands of the industry, problems with the government institutions, development plans

  • Tourism Regulatory Authority

    • Accreditation

    • Benchmarking services

    • Grievance redress

    • Adjudication

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INITIATIVE: InstitutionsHuman Resource Development (Indicative)

  • Institute of Crafts for the handicrafts sector

    • Design input

    • Professional degree/diploma in craft & design-techno-design managers

    • Facilitating marketing and marketing linkage intervention

    • Technology intervention and product and process standardization

    • Capacity building at artisan level

    • Documentation and resource centre

    • IPR issues related to the handicrafts sector

  • Entrepreneurship Management Institutes

    • Entrepreneurship development for SMEs

    • Tourism specific entrepreneurship programmers for tourism enabled services

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INITIATIVE: InstitutionsHuman Resource Development (Indicative)

  • Institutes of Hotel Management

    • HRD in hospitality industry

    • Managerial level courses

    • Language skills

  • Food Crafts Institutes

    • Shop floor level skill development courses

    • Language skills

  • Centre for Heritage Management

    • Capacity building amongst officials in the local governments, town planners, urban and civic bodies, government functionaries about heritage conservationand management issues

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P-P Partnership

Highways, Airports, Urban Infrastructure, Power

Hotels, Travel Agencies, Tour

Operators, Dealers, Handicraft Stores

BOT Roads, Airports,

Resorts, Heritage Properties, Circuit development, Web-portals

INITIATIVE: Infrastructure

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INITIATIVE: InfrastructurePublic Finance

  • Several key sectors like water supply, sewerage, roads, capacity building and public awareness, and heritage conservation can be covered - assistance from multilateral and bilateral funding agencies

  • Separate budgetary provisions for tourism related activities in Forest, PWD and other related departments

  • Public finance and assistance from organizations such as the UNESCO and the World Monument Watch for restoration of heritage monuments

    TOURISM Infrastructure (Illustrative)

  • Civil Aviation (Airports)

  • Roads Up-gradation Project

  • Urban Infrastructure

  • Public facilities

  • Information Kiosks

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  • Tourism is the main driver of economic growth/employment generation in more than 80 countries

  • It has the potential of addressing issues such as rural poverty, empowerment of women, strengthening the economic status of the rural artisans, earning forex etc.

  • It is necessary to create the right environment to attract FDI by establishing progressive legal-institutional framework and facilitating organizations

  • Circuit development approach yields fastest results

  • HR is the key

  • Presenting bankable projects to the investors not only increases the possibility of attracting forex but also establishes benchmarks for the future