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Reconstruction. The Aftermath of the American Civil War 1865-1877. Lincoln’s 10% Plan.

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The Aftermath of the American Civil War


Lincoln s 10 plan
Lincoln’s 10% Plan

Lincoln believed that since secession was illegal, Confederate governments in the Southern states were illegitimate and the states had never really left the Union. He believed that Reconstruction was a matter of quickly restoring legitimate Southern state governments that were loyal to the Union.

Lincoln also believed that to reunify the nation, the federal government should not punish the South, but act “with malice towards none, with charity for all… to bind up the nation’s wounds….”


1. The President is in charge, not Congress. Goal = reunite nation ASAP, NOT punish the South..

2. When 10% of the voters from 1860 pledge their allegiance, Reconstruction is over & the South can rejoin the Union.

Johnson s plan
Johnson’s Plan

Radical Republicans in Congress clashed repeatedly with Lincoln’s successor as president, Andrew Johnson, over the issue of civil rights for freed slaves, eventually impeaching him, but failing to remove him from office.


1. A majority of 1860 voters had to pledge their allegiance

2. Goal = punish Southern leaders for secession

3. Leaders had to personally get a presidential pardon, but allowed Black Codes.

Congressional reconstruction
Congressional Reconstruction

The assassination of Lincoln just a few days after Lee’s surrender at Appomattox enabled Radical Republicans to influence the process of Reconstruction in a manner much more punitive towards the former Confederate states. The states that seceded were not allowed back into the Union immediately, but were put under military rule.

Theyalso believed in aggressively guaranteeing voting and other civil rights to African Americans.


1. Congress is in charge, NOT the President. Goal= punish the South & guarantee rights for Freedmen

2. Created Freedman’s Bureau to help former slaves

3. Military Reconstruction Act= replaced Southern states with military districts under martial law

  • The three “Civil War Amendments” to the Constitution were added:

    ·13th Amendment: outlaws slavery in the United States

    ·14th Amendment: gives former slaves citizenship

    ·15th Amendment: gives Freedmen the right to vote

Compromise of 1877
Compromise of 1877

The Reconstruction period ended following the extremely close presidential election of 1876. In return for support from Southern Democrats in the electoral college vote, the Republicans agreed to end the military occupation of the South. Known as the Compromise of 1877 this enabled former Confederates who controlled the Democratic Party to regain power. It opened the door to the “Jim Crow Era” and began a long period in which African Americans in the South were denied the full rights of American citizenship.

Opposition to reconstruction
Opposition to Reconstruction

1. Ku Klux Klan- Created to oppose Reconstruction & use violence to intimidate African Americans from voting.

2. Redeemer Governments- After the Compromise of 1877 Southern voters elected anti-Reconstruction governments to pass Jim Crow laws

Middle class

farmers. Owned their own homes but rented land from rich landowners in return for cash payments.

Mostly white


Poorest people in


Rented land, food, supplies & shelter

from rich land

owners in return

for a share of

their crops.

Mostly black farmers

Did not own land.

Had to pay rent for use of land.

Impeachment of andrew johnson
Impeachment of Andrew Johnson

Impeachment: Hearing to decide if a President has broken the law & if there should be a trial.

Who: President Johnson is tried by the members of the House of Representatives

Why: Johnson broke the law by firing his Secretary of War & ignoring the Military Reconstruction Act

What Happened: Johnson is impeached, but the Senate votes to not kick him out of office.