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Reconstruction. Mrs. Cord. The southern economy had been ruined by the war. Charleston, South Carolina: Broad Street, 1865. President Lincoln’s Plan. End war as quickly as possible Only 10% of people had to swear allegiance to Union before they could reenter the Union.

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president lincoln s plan
President Lincoln’s Plan
  • End war as quickly as possible
  • Only 10% of people had to swear allegiance to Union before they could reenter the Union.
  • He required states to enlist social change for freed slaves.
  • Lincoln’s assassination did not change the Reconstruction plan much.

A political cartoon of Andrew Johnson and Abraham Lincoln, 1865, entitled "The Rail Splitter At Work Repairing the Union." The caption reads (Johnson): Take it quietly Uncle Abe and I will draw it closer than ever. (Lincoln): A few more stitches Andy and the good old Union will be mended.

reconstruction laws
Reconstruction Laws

U.S. Congress

SC Legislature

Protect rights of newly freed slaves

Freedman’s Bureau Bill

Congress refused to admit Southern officials

“Radical Republicans” won a majority-passed tougher Reconstruction Laws (because of violence in South against former slaves)

Black Codes – a revival of slave codes

Elected former Confederates to leadership


A Harper's Magazine political cartoon alleging Ku Klux Klan and White League opposition to Reconstruction

radical republicans reconstruction
Radical Republicans Reconstruction
  • Military occupation of the South
  • Divided into 5 districts – SC was 2nd district
  • Each district had a military governor
  • Army enforced laws
  • Congress impeached President Johnson so he as commander in chief could not oppose.

The debate over reconstruction and the Freedman's Bureau was nationwide. This 1866 Pennsylvania election poster alleged that the Bureau kept the Negro in idleness at the expense of the hard working white taxpayer. A racist caricature of an African American is depicted.[7

13 th amendment
13th Amendment
  • Emancipation Proclamation
  • Profound social change for African-Americans
freedman social change
Freedman- Social Change
  • Looked for family
  • Established own churches and communities
  • Worked for equal citizenship
  • Worked to obtain education
  • Claim independence
  • Most stayed in the South and became sharecroppers, much the same work as before when they were slaves
whites social change
Whites-Social Change
  • Initially little change in social status even though fortunes were lost
  • Plantations made way to sharecropping- similar to planter/slave relationships
  • White SC’s resented free African Americans
  • Whites feared retaliation by former slaves
  • Black codes showed that Southern whites still wanted to control freed blacks
kkk terrorist groups
KKK-Terrorist Groups
  • Once federal soldiers left South vigilante groups were free to terrorize, intimidate, and even murder free blacks
  • Blacks separated from whites to create their own communities, this caused whites to feel a lack of control which created tension
  • Many former white leaders were outnumbered by Black politicians and so joined KKK to retaliate
  • KKK was formed to keep African Americans in “their place” socially, politically, and economically
14 th amendment
14th Amendment
  • Overturned Dred Scott decision
  • Gave African Americans rights as citizens to :

“equal protection” and “due process”

  • Required 2/3 vote of congress to allow ex-Confederates to hold public office
  • If African Americans were not allowed to vote that state would reduce its power at the federal level-This was INEFFECTIVE
15 th amendment
15th Amendment
  • All MEN have the right to vote in North and South
  • Amendment also motivated by the Radical Republicans desire for political power in the South (slaves would vote for them)
south carolina s governmental response
South Carolina’s Governmental response
  • SC refused to ratify the 14th and 15th amendments
  • The Military Governor required SC to write a new state constitution
small white farmers
Small White Farmers
  • Not directly effected financially by the freeing of slaves
  • Competed with African American sharecroppers
  • Small farmers former superiority to slaves was threatened-some reacted with anger and joined the KKK
  • Others cooperated with Republicans for educational and economic benefits- they were then called “Scalawags”
freedman s bureau
Freedman’s Bureau
  • Designed to provide assistance to anyone effected by the war
  • Provided food, clothing, medical care, education and some protection
  • Helped freedmen find jobs
freedman s bureau cont
Freedman’s Bureau cont.
  • At first they gave former slaves abandoned land, but later they gave the land back to the whites.
  • Famous line: “Forty-acres and a mule.”
  • Established share-cropping relations which kept freedmen and poor whites economically dependent for generations.
  • Most important contribution- the establishment of over 1,000 schools throughout the South
northern philanthropists
Northern Philanthropists
  • Contributed to the education of freedmen
  • Northern Aid Society established schools and colleges throughout the South
  • Northern missionaries traveled South to teach
  • Many slaves were eager to learn to read and write for the first time


  • Bradley, Mark L. Bluecoats and Tar Heels: Soldiers and Civilians in Reconstruction North Carolina (University Press of Kentucky, 2009) 370 pp. ISBN 978-0-8131-2507-7
  • Brogan, Hugh (1985). The Penguin History of the United States of America. London, England: Penguin Books. ISBN0140134603.
  • Brown, Thomas J., ed. Reconstructions: New Perspectives on Postbellum America (2006) essays by 8 scholars excerpt and text search
  • Cimbala, Paul Alan; Miller, Randall M.; Simpson, Brooks D. (2002). An uncommon time: the Civil War and the northern home front. Fordham University Press. ISBN0-8232-2195-4. Retrieved April 29, 2010.
  • Donald, David H. et al. Civil War and Reconstruction (2001), standard textbook
  • Du Bois, W.E.B. Black Reconstruction in America 1860–1880 (1935), Counterpoint to Dunning School explores the economics and politics of the era from Marxist perspective
  • Du Bois, W.E.B. "Reconstruction and its Benefits," American Historical Review, 15 (July, 1910), 781—99 online edition
  • Etcheson, Nicole. "Reconstruction and the Making of a Free-Labor South," Reviews in American History, Volume 37, Number 2, June 2009 in Project MUSE
  • Fitzgerald, Michael W. Splendid Failure: Postwar Reconstruction in the American South (2007), 224pp; excerpt and text search
  • Guelzo, Allen C. (2004). Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation: The End of Slavery in America. New York: Simon & Shuster Paperbacks. Retrieved May 3, 2010.

Foner, Eric and Mahoney, Olivia. America's Reconstruction: People and Politics After the Civil War.ISBN 0-8071-2234-3, short well-illustrated survey

  • Foner, Eric. Reconstruction: America's Unfinished Revolution, 1863–1877 (1988) ISBN 0-06-015851-4. Pulitzer-prize winning history and most detailed synthesis of original and previous scholarship.
  • Foner, Eric. Forever Free: The Story of Emancipation and Reconstruction. 2005. 268 pp.
  • Ford, Lacy K., ed. A Companion to the Civil War and Reconstruction. Blackwell, 2005. 518 pp.
  • Franklin, John Hope. Reconstruction after the Civil War (1961), 280 pages. ISBN 0-226-26079-8. By a leading black historian
  • Harris, William C. With Charity for All: Lincoln and the Restoration of the Union (1997) portrays Lincoln as opponent of Radicals.
  • Henry, Robert Selph. The Story of Reconstruction (1938), popular
  • Holzer, Harold; Medford, Edna Greene; Williams, Frank J. (2006). The Emancipation Proclamation: three views (social, political, iconographic). Louisiana State University Press. Retrieved May 3, 2010.
  • Jenkins, Wilbert L. Climbing up to Glory: A Short History of African Americans during the Civil War and Reconstruction. (2002). 285 pp.
  • McCarthy, Charles Hallan (1901). Lincoln's plan of reconstruction. New York: McClure, Philips, & Company. Retrieved April 27, 2010.

Philips, & Company. Retrieved April 27, 2010.

  • McFeely, William S (1974). C. Vann Woodward. ed. Responses of the Presidents to Charges of Misconduct. New York, New York: Delacorte Press. ISBN0-440-05923-2.
  • Perman, Michael. Emancipation and Reconstruction (2003). 144 pp.
  • Peterson, Merrill D. (1994). Lincoln in American Memory. New York: Oxford University Press. Retrieved April 27, 2010.
  • Randall, J. G. The Civil War and Reconstruction (1953). Long the standard survey, with elaborate bibliography
  • Richardson, Heather Cox. West from Appomattox: The Reconstruction of America after the Civil War (2007)
  • Simpson, Brooks D. The Reconstruction Presidents (2009)
  • Stalcup, Brenda. ed. Reconstruction: Opposing Viewpoints (Greenhaven Press: 1995). Uses primary documents to present opposing viewpoints.
  • Stampp, Kenneth M. The Era of Reconstruction, 1865–1877 (1967); short survey; rejects Dunning School analysis.
  • Trefousse, Hans L. Historical Dictionary of Reconstruction Greenwood (1991), 250 entries
  • Wagner, Margaret E.; Gallagher, Gary W.; McPherson, James M. (2002). The Library of Congress Civil War Desk Reference. New York: Simon & Shuster Paperbacks. ISBN1-4391-4884-8. Retrieved April 29, 2010.
  • Woodward, C. Vann (1966). Reunion and reaction: the compromise of 1877 and the end of reconstruction. Oxford University Press. ISBN0195064232. Retrieved April 5, 2010.



External links

  • Reconstruction: The Second Civil War 2004 PBS film and transcript connecting the replacement of Civil Rights with segregation at the end of 19th century Reconstruction with 1960s Civil Rights Movement.
  • Guide to Reconstruction History links to primary and secondary sources
  • PBS' American Experience: Reconstruction Historians Eric Foner, David Blight, and Ed Ayers discuss "Civil Rights During Reconstruction"
  • Proclamation of August 1866, declaring the Insurrection at an end.
  • Lincoln and Freedom: Reconstruction
  • Reconstruction in Mississippi by Donald J. Mabry
  • "Reconstruction Historiography: A Source of Teaching Ideas" by Robert P. Green, Jr. (1991)
  • W. S. Simkins, "Why the Ku Klux", 4 The Alcalde (June 1916): 735–748. online
  • The Civil War: Reconstruction: This is part of an extensive assessment of the Civil War and slavery which gives particular attention to children.
  • HIST 119: The Civil War and Reconstruction Era, 1845–1877 with Professor David Blight. Full semester course in text/audio/video from Open Yale Courses. Materials free under the Creative Commons license.
  • Reconstruction on The History Channel