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Reconstruction

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  1. Reconstruction Plans

  2. Lincoln’s Plan • 10% loyalty oath of registered voters • Former Confederate officials couldn’t hold office • State had to ban slavery

  3. Opposition to Lincoln’s plan • Radical Republicans • Lincoln’s plan too lenient • Congress should make reconstruction laws • New members from former confederate states (CSA) not seated • Wade-Davis Bill • Majority of males in former CSA had to take loyalty oath • New state constitution would have to ban slavery • Anyone who had supported the CSA couldn’t hold political office

  4. Lincoln assassinated by John Wilkes Booth Andrew Johnson, democrat, becomes president

  5. Johnson’s Plan • Those who pledged loyalty would receive amnesty and citizenship • CSA officials and large landowners would have to apply for a pardon • States would have to hold conventions • Ban slavery • Repudiated war debts

  6. Congressional Reconstruction 1866-1877

  7. Radical Republicans • Led by Thaddeus Stevens and Charles Sumner • Wanted to punish southerners • Wanted to change southern ways • Extend the powers of the freedmen’s Bureau • Pass the Civil Rights Act of 1866 • Abolish black codes • Grant equality to blacks • Approved the “Civil War” amendments • 13th- abolished slavery • 14th- made blacks citizens, equal protection of the law • 15th- gave black men the right to vote

  8. Radical Reconstruction • Divided the former CSA into five military districts (except Tenn.) • To protect black civil rights • Commanded by Union generals • Impeached President Johnson • Violation of Tenure of Office Act • Johnson found not guilty • General Ulysses S. Grant elected president 1868

  9. Black Political Leaders African-Americans (AA) Gain Political Office

  10. Positions • State legislators • Lieutenant governors • State treasurers • City councils • South Carolina and Louisiana had the most

  11. Prominent Black Politicians • P.B.S.Pinchback- first black governor (La.) • Hiram Revels- first black senator (Ms.) • Blanche K. Bruce- once presided over U.S. Senate • Joseph Rainey- first black member of the House of Representatives (s.C.)

  12. Republican State Governments • Reforms • Expanded voting rights • Eliminated black codes • Integrated public accommodations and transportation • Open public schools • Opened: hospitals, orphanages, mental institutions • Lowered taxes on the poor • Raised taxes on land owners • Black Institutions • New churches • Colleges: Howard, Morehouse, Hampton

  13. End of Reconstruction Problems with Reconstruction

  14. White Resistance in the south • Loss of political power • Loss of superiority

  15. DEMOCRATS TAKE BACK CONTROL OF SOUTHERN STATES USING VIOLENCE REDEMPTION

  16. Violent Redemption Shotgun Policy-Mississippi Hamburg Massacre White rifle clubs overtook an armory and defeated a black militia. 7 black men murdered and 25 taken prisoner Federal troops had to be called in Effect: intimidated blacks and white Republicans from voting • Violence against: black voters, militia, political leaders, churches, and teachers

  17. Terror Groups • Ku Klux Klan • Knights of the White Camelia • White League

  18. Economic hardship on blacks • Sharecropping: share the crop profit with land owner • Tenant farming: rent the land (can grow what you want) • Both systems created debt • States forbid debtors from leaving the land until debt was paid • Debt could be inherited • Freedman’s Bank collapsed (bad investments; depositors lost their savings)

  19. End of Reconstruction • Declining support of northerners • Reconstruction was expensive • Couldn’t stop southern terrorism of blacks and white Republicans • New Congressional leaders • Corrupt southern officials • Democratic Party began to regain power in the south and in congress • President Grants administration was corrupt • Economic depression of 1873 meant Federal gov’t had to cut spending • Compromise of 1877 • No electoral winner in 1876 presidential election • Republicans get presidency (Rutherford Hayes) • Democrats get federal troops removed from south