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Afghanistan. Middle Eastern Studies. History. Afghanistan is the crossroads between Central, West and South Asia 1 st area to domesticate animals 1 st true urban centers in Asia were in Afghanistan Mundigak (near Khandahar ) and Deh Morasi Ghundai Wheat Barley Sheep Goats.

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afghanistan

Afghanistan

Middle Eastern Studies

history
History
  • Afghanistan is the crossroads between Central, West and South Asia
  • 1st area to domesticate animals
  • 1st true urban centers in Asia were in Afghanistan
    • Mundigak (near Khandahar) and DehMorasiGhundai
      • Wheat
      • Barley
      • Sheep
      • Goats
slide4

Kabul was established between 2000-1500 bce

  • Zoroastrianism (monotheistic religion) was introduced about 628 bce
  • Persians conquered Afghans by 330 bce but tribes continued bloody revolts
  • By 326 bce, it had been conquered by Alexander the Great, but he couldn’t quell the bloody revolts either
slide5

After Alexander the Great…

    • Buddhism was introduced during the Kushan dynasty
    • Capital was Peshawar
    • Soon became part of the Selucid Empire
  • 120 bce – Kushan Empire
    • King Kanishka was first to give Buddha a face
slide6

400 ce – the White Huns invaded and left Afghanistan in ruins

  • 425 ce – the Yaftalee Dynasty took over
slide8

652 ce – Arabs introduced Islam

  • 962 ce – Ghazavid Dynasty took over
    • Mahmud – made Islam the main religion
    • Afghanistan was the center of Islamic power and civilization at that time
  • 1219-1221 ce – Mongol Invasion – Genghis Khan
  • 1273 ce – Marco Polo crossed Afghanistan on his way to the far East
  • 1504-1519 – Moghul Dynasty
    • Babur Shah took control of Kabul
    • Used Kabul as his base for conquering India
slide9

1708 ce – MirwaisNika made Khandahar independent of Persia. He’s considered the father of Afghan independence

slide10

1736 – Persia took over most of Afghanistan again

  • 1747-1773 – Ahmad Shah Durrani, the founder of today’s Afghanistan took over. He was a military giant and a humanitarian. Beginning of the Durrani Empire
slide11

1793 – capital moved from Khandahar to Kabul

  • Fighting lasted until 1826
  • 1826-1839 – Dost Mohammad Khan took over
    • Britain and Russia fought for control/influence in Central Asia
    • Britain wanted control over northern routes to India
      • Tried to oust Dost
      • Caused 1st Afghan War
slide12

1842-1844 – Akbar Khan – hero – defeated the British. Very revered in Afghan history – portion of Kabul is named after him

slide13

1857 – Dost signed an alliance with the British

  • 1859 – British take Baluchistan causing Afghanistan to be land-locked
  • 1865 – Russia conquered Bukhara, Tashkent and Samerkand
  • 1873 – Russian set fixed boundary with Afghanistan
  • 1878 – British invaded again but Afghanistan held them off
  • 1879 – Amir Muhammedyaqub Khan gave territories to Brits – never to bet them back
    • Kabul went under British occupation
slide14

1880-1901 Afghanistan supported the British against Russia

  • 1893 – Durand Line fixed borders with Afghanistan and British India
  • 1919 – Russia and Great Britain in Convention of St. Petersburg set territorial integrity of Afghanistan
  • Late 1920’s, early 1930’s there was a lot of in-fighting in Afghanistan
slide15

1933 – at 19 years old, Zahir Shah took over as ruler of Afghanistan until 1973

    • Declared Afghanistan neutral during WWII
  • 1973 – his cousin, Daoud Khan overthrew Zahir Shah calls himself President – established Republic of Afghanistan
  • 1978-29 – Bloody Coup – Daoud was killed
    • Guerilla movement Mujahideen was born
  • 1979 – Russia invaded Afghanistan
    • Guerillas gave them fits!
slide16

1989 – Russia withdrew, defeated

  • 1990s – Mujahideen fighting with Afghanistan gov’t. Islamic state was declared
  • 1994 – Taliban militia was born. Fought Islamic gov’t and reduced Kabul to rubble
  • Oct. 2001 – U.S. Invaded
    • Taliban
    • Osama Bin Laden
  • 2005 Afghanistan gov’t is still getting better.