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The Bill of Rights. Added to Constitution Dec. 15, 1791. The Constitution and the laws passed by Congress have created Civil Liberties and Civil Rights. A. Civil Liberties—protection against government action 1. Examples: freedom of religion, speech, and press.

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the bill of rights

The Bill of Rights

Added to Constitution Dec. 15, 1791

the constitution and the laws passed by congress have created civil liberties and civil rights
The Constitution and the laws passed by Congress have created Civil Liberties and Civil Rights

A. Civil Liberties—protection against government action

1. Examples: freedom of religion, speech,

and press.

B. Civil Rights---positive acts of government that seek to make the Constitutional liberties a reality for all people.

1. Includes prohibitions of discrimination

on the basis of race, sex, religion, national

origin set out in the Civil Rights Act of 1964.

rights freedoms and liberties are not absolute
Rights, Freedoms and Liberties are not Absolute
  • Absolute freedom = absolute chaos
  • Yelling fire (when there isn’t one) in a crowded theater in not protected free speech.
  • Obscenity is not protected free speech.
  • In General ---Your rights end where the next person’s begins.
  • Another way of saying it is your right to swing your fist ends at another persons nose.
to whom are rights freedoms and liberties given
To whom are rights, freedoms, and liberties given???????
  • The Constitution says to all persons, not just citizens---therefore people in this country who are not citizens are also guaranteed most rights, freedoms, and liberties.

Exception: the unwritten right to travel freely inside the country is not given to non citizens.

are the rights freedoms and liberties listed in the constitution the only ones we have
Are the rights, freedoms, and Liberties listed in the Constitution the only ones we have?????
  • No !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
  • 9th. Amendment to Constitution says “ the enumeration of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.”
  • It has been the job of the Supreme Court to determine what those rights are.
  • Examples: a woman’s right to choose,

The right of citizens to travel freely inside the United States.

1 st amendment freedom of expression
1st. Amendment---Freedom of Expression
  • Freedoms of religion, speech, press, the right to peacefully assemble, and to petition the government.

A free country cannot exist without the right of free expression.

freedom of religion
Freedom of Religion
  • Establishment Clause:

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion,

  • Free Exercise Clause:

or prohibiting the Free exercise thereof;

the virginia statute for religious freedom 1786
The Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom 1786
  • Among the sources for the Bill of Rights was the Virginia Act for Establishing Religious Freedom, which Thomas Jefferson first proposed in 1779 and the General Assembly of Virginia adopted in 1786.
the establishment clause
The Establishment Clause
  • Jefferson said in a letter that “there should be a wall of separation between church and state”.
  • The question left to the Supreme Court to decide is how high should that wall be?
  • The Supreme Court on numerous occasions has said that government and religion are not enemies or strangers to one another.
slide10
Relationships between Government and Religion that have not been found in violation of the Establishment Clause
  • Churches free from taxation
  • Chaplains in armed services
  • Oath of office in name of God
  • Congress begins sessions with prayer
  • “In God we trust” on money
  • Pledge includes “one nation under God”
can a state law require public tax supported busing of students who attend parochial schools
Can a state law require public tax supported busing of students who attend parochial schools??
  • Yes, Everson v. Board of Ed 1947
  • Court ruled safety of children more important than any violation of the Establishment Clause
can a local school board require religious education in public school classrooms
Can a local school board require religious education in public school classrooms????
  • No, McCullum v. Board of Ed 1948
  • Supreme Court said that this was in violation of the Establishment Clause. It was government promoting religion.
can a local school board allow released time for religious education off school grounds
Can a local school board allow released time for religious education off school grounds????
  • Yes, Zorach v. Clauson 1952

The Supreme Court ruled this way because it was off school grounds, not required by the school, not financed by the school, and the students had parental permission.

Ruling differently would have infringed upon parents rights to raise their children.

slide14
Can a State require by law that all businesses be closed on Sunday out of respect for the Christian Sabbath??????????????
  • No, McGowan v. Maryland 1961
  • These laws were common in most states. They were nicknamed “Blue Laws”.
  • Supreme Court said that the state was promoting religion and specifically promoting the Christian religion.
slide15

Can a state require that the school day begin with a written prayer even though students did not have to participate and the prayer was non-denominational ?????????????

  • No, Engel v. Vitale 1962
  • The Court ruled that the government was in violation of the Establishment Clause because it was a prayer written by the state.
review
Review
  • Be able to define Civil Liberties and Civil Rights
  • Are rights absolute?
  • To whom are rights, freedoms, and liberties given?
  • Are rights listed in Constitution the only rights we have? examples
  • What is the importance of the 9th Amendment?
  • What rights are considered part of your freedom of expression?
  • Identify Establishment Clause and Free Exercise Clause.
  • What is the importance of the Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom? Who wrote it? What did it say?
  • Where does the phrase “wall of separation between church and state” come from?
  • Identify examples of relationships between Church and State that have not been found in violation of Establishment Clause.
review continued
Review continued
  • Know results of Everson v. Board of Ed
  • Know results of McCullum v. Board of Ed
  • Know results of Zorach v. Clauson
  • Know results of McGowan v. Maryland
  • Know results of Engel v. Vitale
  • Know Listening Guide from Video on Freedom of Religion shown on Wednesday
slide18
Can a state require that the school day begin with reading from the Bible and recitation of the Lord’s Prayer?
  • No, Abington School District v. Schempp 1963
  • State was in violation of the Establishment Clause because it was promoting the Christian Religion.
  • However, students may study the Bible as an historical or literary work.
slide19
Can a state prohibit the teaching of evolution in school on the grounds that it was a religious doctrine
  • No, Epperson v. Arkansas 1968

The state of Arkansas argued that evolution was a religious doctrine “Secular Humanism”.

  • Court ruled that evolution was not religious doctrine and the state of Arkansas was actually promoting religious doctrine by outlawing its teaching.
slide20
Can a state prohibit the teaching of Secular Humanism on the grounds that it is a religious doctrine?
  • Secular Humanism can not be prohibited

Its basic tenets may be summarized as:

1.Humans have inherent value and can solve human problems

2. All knowledge is gained through rational process (organized religion is denied)

3. Science and rational thought are enhanced through democracy and free speech

can a state require that the 10 commandments be posted in all public school classrooms
Can a state require that the 10 Commandments be posted in all public school classrooms???
  • No, Stone v. Graham 1980
  • Court ruled this was promoting religion and therefore in violation of the Establishment Clause.
  • Just 2 years ago a similar case came before the Federal Courts when the Alabama Supreme Court building had a statue of the 10 Commandments in the lobby. The Federal Courts forced the Alabama Supreme Court Judge that put the statue there to remove it.
slide22

Can a city have a nativity scene included in a holiday display, on government property, if it part of a display that also includes Santa and other non religious items???

  • Yes, Lynch v Donnelly 1984
  • Court considered this not in violation of Establishment Clause because it celebrated a holiday season and not specifically a religious holiday.
slide23

Can a local government have a holiday display, on government property, that celebrates the birth of Jesus by displaying a banner that says “Glory to God in the Highest”?

  • No, County of Allegheny v. ACLU 1989
  • Supreme Court found this a clear violation of the Establishment Clause.
slide24
Can a state pay a chaplain with public funds to say a prayer to begin a session of the State Legislature?
  • Yes, Marsh v. Chambers 1983
  • The Supreme Court said: “unlike school children, legislators were not susceptible to religious indoctrination or peer pressure.”
slide25
Can a state require a one minute period of silence for meditation or voluntary prayer to start a school day?
  • No, Wallace v. Jaffree 1985
  • The Supreme Court took exception to the inclusion of the word “prayer”, even though it was voluntary.
can a school system provide for an offering of a prayer as part of the graduation ceremony
Can a school system provide for an offering of a prayer as part of the graduation ceremony?
  • No, Lee v. Weisman 1992
  • The Supreme Court said that this was in violation of the Establishment Clause because the prayer was planned for by the School System.
can a state require the teaching of creationism as an alternate point of view from evolution
Can a state require the teaching of “Creationism” as an alternate point of view from Evolution???
  • No, Edwards v. Aguillard 1987
  • The Supreme Court said that any required teaching of the Biblical story of creation in public schools was in violation of the Establishment Clause.
can a school system have as their stated policy that all athletic events begin with a prayer
Can a school system have as their stated policy that all athletic events begin with a prayer????
  • No, Santa Fe School District v. Doe 2000
  • Supreme Court said that since it was School Board Policy it was in violation of the Establishment Clause.
free speech vs the establishment clause
Free Speech vs. The Establishment Clause
  • Can a student at graduation on their own, without school system direction, offer a prayer? Yes
  • Can a student wear a shirt that has a pro Christian message on it to school? Yes
  • Can students pray before school or during lunch? Yes
  • Can a student bring the Bible or other Holy Books to school? Yes
slide30

Using the argument of separation of church and state, can a state deny a student a scholarship that he or she has earned based on grades and test scores, because they plan to use that scholarship to go to a religious school and become a priest/minister?

  • In a very controversial decision in 2005, the Supreme Court upheld the states action of denying the scholarship to the student.
equal access act of 1984
Equal Access Act of 1984
  • Any public high school that receives federal funds (nearly all do) must allow student religious groups to meet in school on the same terms as they allow other student organizations.
  • Examples:

1. Fellowship of Christian Athletes.

2. Rally around the pole.

3. A church group who would like to use the school facilities after the school day for worship.

how much aid can the federal state and local governments give to parochial schools
How much aid can the federal, state, and local governments give to parochial schools??????
  • Supreme Court attempts to settle the question in Lemon v. Kurtzman 1971 by setting up what becomes known as the “Lemon Test”.
  • For the government aid to the parochial school to not violate the Establishment Clause the answer to the following three questions must be YES.
lemon test questions

Lemon test questions

1. Is the purpose of the aid secular (non religious)?

2. Does the primary effect of the aid neither advance nor inhibit religion?

3. Does the aid avoid excessive entanglements of government with religion?

Examples of Lemon Test in use:

1. State can not pay salary of parochial teachers.

State can pay parochial schools money to administer state sponsored test

State can provide funds to provide an interpreter for a deaf student at a parochial school.

free exercise clause cases congress shall make no law prohibiting the free exercise of religion
Free Exercise Clause CasesCongress shall make no law prohibiting the free exercise of religion
  • Can the government prohibit polygamy (having more than one wife) even though it was part of a religious doctrine?
  • Yes, Reynolds v. U.S. 1879
slide35
Can a state require school children receive vaccinations even though it is against the religious teaching of a certain group?
  • Yes, Jacobson v. Mass. 1905
  • The Supreme Court said that The law protected the health of children and the community.
can a state forbid the handling of poisonous snakes in a religious ceremony
Can a state forbid the handling of poisonous snakes in a religious ceremony?
  • Yes , Bunn v. North Carolina 1949

Law protects those in congregation that might not believe in handling snakes---especially children.

can a state require that a person get a license before they ask for donations for a religious cause
Can a state require that a person get a license before they ask for donations for a religious cause?
  • No, Cantwell v. Connecticut 1940 and Watchtower Bible and Tract Society v.Village of Stratton 2002
  • A violation of the freedom to worship and free speech rights.
slide38

Can the state require that children go to school up to a certain age even if a religious group (Amish) want to take them out of school after the 8th grade?

  • No, Wisconsin v. Yoder 1972
  • Do the Amish have to pay Social Security taxes even though they don’t use the system? Yes
can the federal government draft people into the military even if they have religious objections
Can the federal government draft people into the military even if they have religious objections?
  • Welsh v. U.S. 1970---only persons whose consciences would give them no rest if they allowed themselves to become part of an instrument of war are exempt from the draft.
review1
Review
  • You will not need to know the names of cases, but you will need to know what the court decided ---for example:
  • Can a school system have as their stated policy that athletic events begin with a prayer? Answer ---No
  • Cases you will be responsible for: Abington v. Shempp, Epperson v. Arkansas, Stone v. Graham, Lynch v. Donnelly, County of Allegheny v. ACLU, Marsh v. Chambers, Wallace v. Jaffree, Lee v. Weisman, Edwards v. Aquillard, Santa Fe School District v. Doe, Reynolds v. U.S., Jacobson v. Massachusetts, Bunn v. North Carolina, Cantwell v. Connecticut, Wisconsin v. Yoder, Welsh v. U.S.
  • Also be able to define Secular Humanism---is it considered a religion by the courts?—be able to define polygamy, and identify Equal Access Act.
review continued1
Review Continued
  • Be able to give examples of the Lemon Test.
  • Be able to give examples of cases and decisions concerning Free Speech vs. The Establishment Clause.
  • Be able to discuss and explain if the Supreme Court, in your opinion, has taken the separating of government and religion too far or not far enough. Be able to give examples of decisions that you disagree with.