The Bill of Rights • Speech, Assembly, Religion, Press, petition for redress of grievances, separate church and state • Right to bear arms • No quartering act • Privacy, search and seizure • Due process, double jeopardy, self incrimination • Speedy, public trial • Trial by jury • Prohibits cruel and unusual punishment • Rights not specifically mentioned are also protected • All powers not delegated to the Federal government are reserved for the states
Washington’s Presidency • He set many important precedents during his tenure of office • These included: • Two-terms • The Cabinet • Proclamation of Neutrality • The Federal Court system was also created in 1789 • This act created 13 circuit courts and 3 circuit courts of appeals • When he left the Presidency, he warned the nation about the problems of political parties.
Hamilton’s Financial Plan • Hamilton wanted to accomplish several things as he started as Sec. of the Treasury • Bind the country together • Increase Federal power and prestige • Pay off debts • Protect industry • He tried to accomplish this through the following: • Funding state debts at par • A tax on whiskey • A protective tariff • A national bank
The Whiskey Rebellion • It occurred because of the tax on whiskey. • Whiskey was important to western farmers because it was a product of corn that could be shipped east for sale. • The poor farmers rebelled against the tax. • Washington used the army to put down the rebellion. • This demonstrated that the new government was committed to enforcing its laws.
Jefferson’s Response • Jefferson opposed much of Hamilton’s Plan • He felt that it was too focused on the wealthy and ignored the concerns of the common man • He also felt that the plan would give power to the Federal government at the expense of the states.
Jeffersonian Republicans • These were those people who were critics of the Federalists. • They with the Federalists formed the first political parties in the U.S.
Foreign Affairs • The French Revolution • Americans supported the idea of the Revolution, but were horrified by the mob violence • Proclamation of Neutrality • Washington believed that the US was not strong enough to be involved in foreign wars or alliances • Jay’s Treaty • This was an attempt to stop British impressments of sailors • Pinckney’s Treaty • The US got the right to use the Mississippi River for shipping. The Spanish thought the US and G.B. were working together and got scared.
The Presidency of Adams • The XYZ Affair • France tried to bully the United States delegates into paying a bribe in order to enter negotiations • Adams resisted the call for war • The Alien and Sedition Acts • These laws raised the time for citizenship from 5 to 14 years • The Sedition Act made it a crime to criticize the President or Congress • The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions • These were responses written by Madison and Jefferson that railed against the expansion of power in the Sedition Act • These resolutions stated that states should be able to NULLIFY federal laws that are unconstitutional
The Revolution of 1800 • The election of 1800 represented the first time in history that a country had peacefully transferred power from one political group to its rival without bloodshed • Jefferson changed as a leader, as he became more open to expanding powers of the Federal government as shown in the Louisiana Purchase • Jefferson was saddled with a largely Federalist Court system • The influence of the Federalists would carry on for several years past their electoral success