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Nationalism vs. Sectionalism. Early Foreign Policy. Presidents maintained a policy of neutrality – starting with which President? However, the US wanted to trade with Europe Great Britain and France were continuing to fight each other Great Britain tried to seize US ships trading with France.

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Nationalism vs. Sectionalism

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early foreign policy
Early Foreign Policy

Presidents maintained a policy of neutrality – starting with which President?

However, the US wanted to trade with Europe

Great Britain and France were continuing to fight each other

Great Britain tried to seize US ships trading with France

early foreign policy1
Early Foreign Policy
  • Britain interfering with US trade led to the War of 1812
  • Effects of the War of 1812
    • Reinforced our policy of neutrality
    • Native Americans lost their ally, Great Britain
    • American manufacturing began to grow particularly in New England
    • Growth of US nationalism
    • Federalist party disappeared
    • New War Heroes, Andrew Jackson and William Henry Harrison
    • “Star Spangled Banner” was written
early foreign policy2
Early Foreign Policy
  • Monroe Doctrine – foundation for US foreign policy in the Western Hemisphere
  • Principles of the Monroe Doctrine
    • An end to European colonization
    • No intervention by Europe in the Western Hemisphere
    • Declared European interference was “dangerous to our peace and safety”
    • Promise of US noninterference in European affairs

The War of 1812 has been called the “Second War for American Independence” primarily because the

(1) British blocked United States access to the port of New Orleans

(2) United States continued to resist taxes imposed by Great Britain

(3) British government had never fully respected the United States as a free nation

(4) United States and Great Britain had not signed a peace treaty after the Revolutionary War


The main purpose of the Monroe Doctrine (1823) was to

(1) stake a claim to Mexican territory

(2) limit European influence in the Americas

(3) force the British out of the Oregon Territory

(4) establish full control over Canada


The Monroe Doctrine (1823) established the United States foreign policy that

(1) provided foreign aid to developing nations

(2) opposed the creation of new colonies in Latin America

(3) led directly to the Civil War

(4) encouraged expansion into East Asia

factors unifying the united states
Factors Unifying the United States
  • Second two-party system
    • 1834 Whig Party formed to opposed Andrew Jackson’s party, the Democratic Party
    • The interest in the two parties increased voting and involvement in national issues
  • Development of a market economy
    • Stimulated economic growth
    • Led to industrialization and urbanization
    • Development of interstate commerce promoted a national economy – all in it together
    • Led to better national transportation system
industrialization in the north
Industrialization in the North
  • Transportation Revolution brought new technologies, innovations and inventions
    • Erie Canal
    • Railroads
    • New York City becomes financial center
    • Steam Power
    • New roads of stone and gravel
factory system
Factory System

Work done by machines rather than by hand

Gave jobs to immigrants

12 hour work days 6 days a week


9 out of 10 of the largest cities were in the north

Immigrants made up the majority of the population in these cities

Large gap between rich and poor

Cities were unsanitary and unsafe

middle class and working class life
Middle Class and Working Class Life
  • Both men, women and children of the working class worked outside the home
    • Men – factories
    • Women - servants
  • Middle Class men tended to work in the new business world
  • Middle Class women stayed home
  • Middle Class children tended to attend public schools
  • Free African Americans in the north faced discrimination and segregation

Until 1850 – most immigrants came from northern and western Europe – particularly Ireland and Germany

They generally settled in the north and west because of greater economic opportunity

Few restrictions on immigration because labor was needed for the factories


Between 1845 and 1850 millions of Irish came to the US because of the Irish potato famine

Germans came because of civil war back at home

Nativism (anti-immigrant feelings) were so strong that a political party called the “Know Nothings” was former to support immigration restrictions


The majority of immigrants who arrived in the United States between 1800 and 1860 came from

(1) East Asia

(2) Latin America

(3) northern and western Europe

(4) southern and eastern Europe


The Erie Canal contributed to the development of the United States by

(1) eliminating the need for railroads

(2) linking the Great Lakes to the Atlantic Coast

(3) becoming the major trade route to California

(4) allowing southern planters to ship their cotton westward


How did completion of the Erie Canal in 1825 affect United States commerce?

(1) New York City lost business as manufacturing centers grew in the West.

(2) United States exports to European countries declined.

(3) Western farmers gained better access to East Coast markets.

(4) The Midwest


During the 1830s, the development of a national two-party political system was mainly the result of

(1) conflicts over the use of the Monroe Doctrine

(2) debates over the National Bank and tariffs

(3) disputes over the Oregon boundary

(4) controversy over the Indian Removal Act


In the early 1800s, which factor was most

important in the development of Northern manufacturing centers?

(1) abundance of water power

(2) availability of slave labor in the North

(3) development of gold mines

(4) access to passes


During the 1850s, Irish immigrants were often discriminated against because they

(1) refused to participate in local politics

(2) displaced slave labor in the South

(3) arrived in the United States with great wealth

(4) practiced the Roman Catholic religion

southern development
Southern Development

South remained agricultural

Population grew slowly because there was not the demand for labor that there was in the north

Invention of the cotton gin by Eli Whitney turned cotton into the south’s most successful crop “King Cotton”

effects of cotton
Effects of Cotton

Stimulated the growth of slavery

Spurred western migration of farmers with their slaves

Cotton made up half of all US exports

South dependent on north for its markets and manufactured goods

early slave resistance
Early Slave Resistance
  • Most early resistance took the forms of escape, self-mutilation, sabotage or work slow downs
  • Slave revolts were uncommon but there were several notable ones
    • 1800 – Gabriel Prosser’s Conspiracy in Virginia
    • 1822 – Denmark Vessey led a revolt in South Carolina
    • 1831 – Nat Turner led a revolt in Virginia
early slave resistance1
Early Slave Resistance

Revolts led southerners to pass increasingly strict laws to maintain slavery.

Freeing slaves became more difficult

Became illegal to teach slaves to read

the age of jackson
The Age of Jackson

President from 1829-1837

Jackson ran for president in 1824 and lost

By the mid-1820s most states had dropped their property qualifications to vote

In 1828 the number of voters was 3 times what it had been in 1824

Jackson, a war hero from the War of 1812, appealed to these new voters

the age of jackson spoils system
The Age of Jackson – Spoils System

Spoils System – gave government jobs to people who had worked to help their political party win the election. Practice started with Andrew Jackson

1881 – a party worker who didn’t get a job assassinated President Garfield

1883 – Pendleton Act began the civil service system

civil service system
Civil Service System

Competitive exams would be used to hire some government workers

Set up a commission to administer the tests

Banned the practice of forcing government employees to give money to political parties


Starting with the election of President Andrew Jackson (1828), voter participation increased due to the

(1) passage of an amendment ending religious qualifications for voting

(2) extension of suffrage to Native American Indians

(3) end of property requirements for voting by many states

(4) arrival of more immigrants from nations with democratic governments


President Andrew Jackson used the spoils system to

(1) veto bills he disliked

(2) enforce Supreme Court decisions

(3) move Native American Indians off their traditional lands

(4) provide jobs to political party supporters


What was a major reason that slavery expanded in the South in the first half of the 1800s?

(1) Federal government regulations favored Southern exports.

(2) New inventions led to an increase in cotton production.

(3) Most early textile mills were built in the South.

(4) The federal government encouraged the importation of enslaved persons.

growing sectionalism
Growing Sectionalism

States’ Rights vs Federal Supremacy

1820-1865 - Debate between states and the federal government focused on nullification (ability of states to reject federal laws), protective tariffs, and slavery

tariff debate
Tariff Debate

Tariff – a tax on imported goods

Southern states opposed protective tariffs which would result in higher price paid for manufactured goods. They saw the northern factories as the only beneficiaries of them

John C. Calhoun – Vice President Under Andrew Jackson opposed the Tariff of 1828

He argued states had the right to nullify any law the state considered unconstitutional

tariff debate1
Tariff Debate

1832 – a lower tariff was passed, but South Carolina and John C. Calhoun still protested

Calhoun resigned as Vice President and got South Carolina to nullify the tariff

President Jackson declared the act treasonous

Crisis resolved after Congress agreed to gradually lower the tariff and authorized the use of troops in South Carolina to collect the tariff. South Carolina withdrew its nullification


One way in which the Kentucky and Virginia

Resolutions (1798) and the South Carolina

Ordinance of Nullification (1832) are similar is

that each

(1) claimed that individual states have the right

to interpret federal laws

(2) formed part of the unwritten constitution

(3) supported the federal government’s power to

declare war

(4) provided a way for new states to enter the



Most tariffs in the 19th century were intended to

(1) allow access to cheap foreign imports

(2) raise revenue and protect domestic


(3) redistribute wealth among the social classes

(4) limit American exports

relations with native americans
Relations with Native Americans
  • Native Americans tried a variety of strategies to cope and retain their land and culture.
  • The Removal Policy
    • Treaties Native Americans had with the United States were worthless because Native Americans were repeatedly forced to give up their land that had been guaranteed by treaties
    • 1830s – Andrew Jackson began his official Removal Policy that forced Native Americans to give up their land and move west of the Mississippi River.
relations with native americans1
Relations with Native Americans
  • Worcester v. Georgia – Supreme Court case
    • Cherokee tried to prevent Georgia from taking their land
    • Chief Justice John Marshall ruled that Georgia had no authority over the Cherokee territory, but Georgia simply ignored the ruling
    • 1838 – U.S. Army rounded up the Cherokee and moved them west on a march called the Trail of Tears

Which Supreme Court decision is most closely associated with the Trail of Tears?

(1) McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)

(2) Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)

(3) Worcester v. Georgia (1832)

(4) Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857)


President Andrew Jackson’s policy toward Native American Indians was created to

(1) encourage Native American Indians to become part of mainstream American society

(2) force Native American Indians to move west of the Mississippi River

(3) improve educational opportunities for Native American Indians

(4) grant citizenship to Native American\ Indians

the american reform tradition
The American Reform Tradition
  • The Second Great Awakening
    • A religious revival movement that emphasized self-reliance, one’s ability to affect their own future and to improve the world.
    • The movement called for self-improvement and to fight forced of evil.
    • The good citizen acts for the common good.
the american reform tradition1
The American Reform Tradition
  • Public Schools
    • Reformers recognized if people were going to govern they needed to be educated. Horace Mann led the drive for public education in the early 19th century. Developed the system of grade levels and teacher training
the american reform tradition2
The American Reform Tradition
  • Care for the Mentally and Physically Disabled
    • Early 1800s’ – most mentally ill were kept in prisons
    • Dorothea Dix worked with several states to get funding for hospitals for the mentally ill
    • Reformers also pushed for the creation of hospitals, orphanages, and institutions for the physically disabled

1820’s – Abolitionist (anti-slavery) movement grew as cotton production became more profitable and slavery spread

Activists included African Americans such as: Frederick Douglas, Sojourner Truth, Harriet Tubman

White activists: William Lloyd Garrison

  • Underground Railroad
    • A series of safe houses where escaping slaves could rest safely as they made their way into Canada
women s rights
Women’s Rights

Women’s Rights movement began officially in 1848 when Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott organized the Women’s Rights Convention in Seneca Falls, NY

Issued the Declaration of Sentiments which wanted to end legal inequalities faced by married women

women s rights1
Women’s Rights

1853 – Susan B. Anthony joined the women’s rights movement and there was a shift to focusing on getting women the right to vote, known as suffrage movement


Which 19th-century event supported the movement for women’s rights?

(1) Seneca Falls Convention

(2) Dred Scott decision

(3) formation of the Republican Party

(4) Lincoln-Douglas debates


Abolitionists in the pre–Civil War period were most likely to support the

(1) removal of the Cherokee Indians from Georgia

(2) passage of the Fugitive Slave Act

(3) activities of the Underground Railroad

(4) use of popular sovereignty in the territories


The Declaration of Sentiments, adopted at the Seneca Falls Convention in 1848, was significant because it

(1) promoted the idea of equal rights for women

(2) demanded the immediate abolition of slavery

(3) called for the prohibition of alcoholic


(4) asked government

manifest destiny
Manifest Destiny
  • From 1802-1853, the United States expanded to its present continental boundaries
  • Many Americans believed in Manifest Destiny, the conviction had a divine mission:
    • To expand to the Pacific and even to possess the entire North American continent
    • To spread the ideals of freedom and democracy
westward expansion
Westward Expansion

Lewis and Clark – began the exploration of the west

Louisiana Purchase (1803) – territory acquired from France. Jefferson sent Lewis and Clark here to explore

Florida (1819) – Acquired by treaty with Spain.

Texas (1845) – US acquired Texas and parts of New Mexico, Oklahoma, Colorado, Wyoming and Kansas, by annexation (basically taking over without war)

westward expansion1
Westward Expansion

Oregon Country (1846) – Oregon, Washington, Idaho and parts of Montana and Wyoming were gained from a treaty with Great Britain

Mexican Cession (1848) – California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, and parts of New Mexico, Wyoming and Colorado became as part of the US as a result of the Mexican War

westward expansion2
Westward Expansion

Gadsen Purchase (1853) – Piece of land in southern Arizona and New Mexico was purchased from Mexico as a possible railroad route

expansion and the debate over slavery
Expansion and the Debate Over Slavery
  • With expansion a controversy brewed over whether these new territories should allow slavery or not
  • Northern View
    • Sought to stop the spread of slavery, argued
      • The Constitution gave Congress jurisdiction over the territories
      • Previous acts justified Congressional action
        • Northwest Ordinance - Congress had banned slavery in the territory of north of the Ohio River
        • Missouri Compromise – 1820, banned slavery in that part of the Louisiana Purchase north of 36 latitude
expansion and the debate over slavery1
Expansion and the Debate Over Slavery
  • Southern View
    • Said Constitutional equality belonged only to whites
    • Argued slavery was legal because
      • Congress did not have the authority to prevent the extension of slavery into the territories
      • Congress had a duty to protect slavery in the South and in the territories

A major reason for purchasing the Louisiana Territory (1803) was to

(1) gain access to the Ohio Territory

(2) remove the British from the borders of the United States

(3) secure control of the port of New Orleans

(4) open the Rocky Mountains to miners


In the 1840s, President James K. Polk’s belief in Manifest Destiny led to

(1) a war with Mexico

(2) an alliance with several South American


(3) the establishment of new colonies in the Caribbean

(4) a ban on the activities of northern abolitionists


The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 established a model for later settlement by providing for the

(1) legal expansion of slavery

(2) creation of national parks

(3) distribution of free land to war veterans

(4) process for territories to become states


A major reason President Thomas Jefferson

authorized the Lewis and Clark expedition was to

(1) claim California for the United States

(2) explore a route to the Pacific Ocean

(3) remove British outposts from United States land

(4) establish settlements in the Southwest


“Compromise Enables Maine and Missouri to Enter the Union”

“California Joins the Union As Part of Compromise of 1850”

“Kansas-Nebraska Act Establishes Popular Sovereignty in the Territories”

Which issue is most closely associated with these


(1) status of slavery in new states

(2) negotiation of the Oregon Treaty

(3) expansion of land for reservations

(4) influence of political parties on economic



The Louisiana Purchase (1803) was a foreign

policy success for the United States primarily

because it

(1) secured full control of Florida from Spain

(2) ended French control of the Mississippi River

(3) ended British occupation of forts on

American soil

(4) eliminated Russian influence in North



Which action is most closely associated with the term Manifest Destiny?

(1) declaring independence from Great Britain

(2) deciding to end the War of 1812

(3) acquiring territory from Mexico in 1848

(4) annexing Hawaii and the Philippines