Bantu Migration • 3,000 BC - Farmers, herders • Known for: Iron working, slash and burn • Over 1,500 yrs, they migrated to S. Africa • Cultural blending: • Swahili – Arabic and Persian & Bantu • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eUdRSDcDQlY
#2: Think about synchronized swimmingThen, infer what religious syncretism means.
Religion in Africa • Animism – • The belief that spirits are present in animals, plants, and other natural objects • Islam – • Spread into Northern Africa through trade and conquest • Christianity – • Brought into the Kingdom of Aksum • Religious Syncretism – • Blending of religions
#3: Locate the Sahara desert. What would be worth the travel across the desert to trade?
Trans Saharan Trade • Forests in West Africa – deposits of gold • However, lacked salt • Sahara desert rich in salt • Cultural blending
Ghana • Became rich from taxing traders • Commanded an army and controlled trade • Influenced by Islam • Muslim Almoravids conquered and disrupted Ghana’s trade
Mali • New gold found east of Ghana • Twice size of Ghana • Sundiata – first great warrior leader of Mali • Mansa Musa – ruler of Mali who went on hajj • Gave away enormous amounts of gold • Europeans learned of Mali’s wealth • Timbuktu – famous city in Mali, mosques, universities
#6. What can you infer from the names of two famous Songhai leaders below? Sunni Ali Askia Muhammad
Songhai • New gold fields developed eastward • Sunni Ali - military leader who expanded territory • Conquered Timbuktu • Askia Muhammad – took over after Ali’s son was not a Muslim • Led empire at its peak
#7. Predict how Songhai might fall. (The last of the West African Empries)
The Fall • Songhai lacked modern weapons • 1304 – Arabs developed first gun • 1591 – Moroccan army invaded Songhai with gunpowder and cannons • Ended a 1,000 year period of powerful West African kingdoms