Early African Kingdoms & Empires - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Early African Kingdoms & Empires

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  1. Early African Kingdoms & Empires

  2. Pre-Historic Africa

  3. North African Kingdoms

  4. Kingdom of Kush[295 BCE – 320 CE] Nubia[modern-day Sudan]

  5. Pyramids of Kush at Meroë

  6. Pyramids of Kush at Meroë

  7. Kushite in Egypt, 23 BCE

  8. Kingdom of Axum [300-700]

  9. Stele, Ezana’s Royal Tomb,Aksum (4c)

  10. Christian Church, Lalibela[Ethiopia]

  11. Christian Church, Lalibela[Ethiopia] Coptic Christian Priest

  12. AXUM’SACHIEVEMENTS Built Stelae Controlled NE African Trade Written Language Terrace Farming Spread Christianity in No. & E. Africa

  13. West African Empires & Civilizations

  14. Early African Kingdoms 600 CE – 1500’s • Ghana • Mali • Songhay • Benin • Swahili • Great Zimbabwe

  15. Trans-Saharan Trade & Islamic States in W. Africa • After 300 CE – camels replaced horses & donkeys as transport • Camels – quicken pace of communication • Islamic merchants crossed desert & established relations

  16. Gold-Salt Trade Berbers SALT GOLD

  17. Ghana Empire [4c-11c] Gold “Money”, Ghana/Ivory Coast

  18. Salt

  19. Kingdom of Ghana -- Gold-Salt Trade • Most important commercial site in W. Africa • Provided gold, ivory, & slaves for traders from N. Africa • In exchange for salt, horses, cloth, & manufactured goods • Capital = Ghana – thriving commercial center • Ghana kings convert to Islam by 10th cent. – tolerant

  20. Mali Empire [13c-15c] SALT GOLD

  21. Sundiata [1210-1260] “Lion Prince”

  22. Mali Empire • Sundiata • “Lion Prince” • Built Mali Empire • Controlled gold-salt trade (post-Ghana) • Taxed all trade in W. Africa • Caravans linked Mali & N. Africa • Many prosperous cities

  23. Mansa Musa [r. 1312-1337]

  24. Mansa Musa • Greatest king of Mali • Sundiata’s grandnephew • Known for pilgrimage to Mecca (Hajj)– huge caravan • Effects of Hajj (Important) • Strengthened Islam, promoted education, trade & commerce in Mali • Built mosques (Timbuktu, Gao & Djenne) • Sent students to study w/scholars in W. Africa • Estab. Islamic schools • Timbuktu • Commercial & Intellectual center of Mali

  25. Mansa Musa – Hajj Stats • 100 camel-loads of gold (300 lbs./each) • 500 Slaves – each carrying a 4 lb. gold staff • Thousands of his subjects • Senior Wife • 500 attendants • He was “making it rain” gold in Egypt & Mecca • SO!! Mansa Musa ran out of $$$$. “He gave out so much gold… it caused its value to fall”

  26. Timbuktu-”Heavenly Clay”

  27. Timbuktu Rooftop, Mosque

  28. Tuaregs

  29. Marketplace near the Niger River

  30. Mosque in Gao

  31. Great Mosque at Djenne, Mali

  32. Distant Mosque at Djenne, Mali

  33. European Map

  34. Songhai Empire [15c-16c] SALT GOLD

  35. Sunni Ali [r.1464-1492] • Songhai take over from Mali (control gold-salt trade) • Muslim leaders • Sunni Ali – ruler of Songhai • Worked to unify, strenghten & enlarge the land (took over Timbuktu & Djenne) • Brought stability & peace to Songhai • Religiously tolerant

  36. Askia Mohammed [r.1493-1529] Great leader of Songhai Serious Muslim Supported Islamic education (Timbuktu flourished again) Djenne became a center of learning Organized govt. and laws based on Islamic principles Created 1st standing army

  37. Askia Mohammed’s Tomb [1443-1538] Gao, Mali

  38. Benin Empire [15c-19c]

  39. Bronze Heads from Benin (16c)

  40. Benin Bronze Leopard