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Outline of Lecture Session on Cultural Influences in Social Behavior. A. Reminder that in the Text Chapter 2 -- Culture and the Self (includes Figure from Markus & Kitayama). Chapter 5 – Culture and Behavior. B . Social Psychology and Cross-Cultural Psychology

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outline of lecture session on cultural influences in social behavior
Outline of Lecture Session on Cultural Influences in Social Behavior
  • A. Reminder that in the Text
  • Chapter 2 -- Culture and the Self (includes Figure from
  • Markus & Kitayama).
  • Chapter 5 – Culture and Behavior.
slide2

B. Social Psychology and Cross-Cultural

  • Psychology
  • Much of the information used by social
  • psychologists in examining the role of culture
  • in social behavior is taken from cross-cultural
  • psychology.
example of cross cultural research
Example of Cross-Cultural Research
  • Levine (1984)
  • Researcher was interested in assessing time perspective and sense of time urgency in different cultures.
  • Data were collected in 12 cities, two cities each in six countries (Taiwan, Japan, Indonesia, Italy, England, and USA).
slide4

Dependent Variables:

  • Accuracy of bank clocks
  • Average walking speed over 100 feet.
  • Time taken by a postal clerk to complete a request for stamps.
slide6

Interest in consistencies and differences in the levels of behavior across a small number of different cultures.

slide7

e.g., study by Hamid

Participants were Chinese Hong Kong (Eastern

culture) and New Zealander (Western culture)

Researcher administered a questionnnaire to

measure trait self-monitoring and compared the

average score for both groups.

slide8

As predicted, Hong Kong Chinese participants score higher on average on measure of trait self-monitoring compared to the New Zealand participants .

That is, the Chinese respondents were more likely to indicate that their behaviour is guided by the particular nature of the situation

slide9

Another Type of Concern2. Interest in consistencies and differences in the levels of behavior across a very large number of cultures – preferably all cultures in the world, with a focus on consistencies in the level or presence of some behavior.

slide10

Consistency in this case is seen to imply or to describe something that is universal, or near universal, about humans – about social behavior.

This leads to inferences about the causes of universality – which is a common genetic heritage or genetic structure.

example
Example

i) Recognition of facial expressions of

emotional states

Present photographs of people experiencing various emotional states and ask viewers in different cultures to identify or label the emotion experienced.

Good evidence from many different cultures that the identification is constant. For example, the facial expressions indicating sadness in one culture are recognized as sadness in other cultures.

slide12

ii) This interest may also involve a comparison of two groups across many different cultures, again, with an interest in consistency or universality.

e.g., David Buss (see text) regarding the characteristics males find attractive in women (related to child-bearing), and the characteristics that females find attractive in men (related to resources and power to aid in the raising of their children).

These characteristics tend to be the same across many different cultures.

slide13

Interest in consistencies and differences in the relations between independent variables and dependent variables across a number of different cultures.

  • e.g., Hedges and Yousif – lost-letter
  • study.
slide14

This study was interested in examining the relations between three independent variables and helping behaviour in two cultures.

  • Urban-rural locations
  • Urgency of request
  • Cost to helper
slide15

Number of Returned Lost Letters for Each Condition and

Location in Each Country (maximum cell value = 50)

United Kingdom Sudan

Birmingham Lichfield Khartoum Al-Gaily

slide16

Number of Returned Lost Letters for Each Condition and

Location in Each Country (maximum cell value = 50)

United Kingdom Sudan

Birmingham Lichfield Khartoum Al-Gaily

slide17

4. Interest in differences between groups of people in different cultures, with an emphasis on culture, not on universality.

e.g., gender differences in different cultures, stages of adolescent development in different cultures, socialization practices.

slide18

Citlak (2008). Socialization goals among first and second-generation migrant Turkish and German mothers

As they grow older, Turkish children are expected to be respectful, obedient, and to accept the authority of their elders. Young children, however, are typically treated with indulgence. Indulgence is generally limited to the first 5-7 years, and is likely to be gradually replaced by a parenting style that is much more demanding and strict, and in which children are expected to help their younger siblings and their elders.

slide19

Participants

Mothers lived in Germany. Twenty-six mothers were interviewed from each of the following groups:

German,

first-generation Turkish,

second-generation Turkish

slide20

Socialization Goals Interview

Four-open-ended questions:

What are some of the qualities and behaviours that you would like to see your child grow to possess?

What are some of the qualities and behaviours that you would not like to see your child grow to possess?

Describe a child you know who possesses at least the beginnings of some of the positive qualities you mentioned.

Describe a child you know who possesses at least the beginnings of some of the negative qualities you mentioned.

slide22

Safdar and Lay: Study with Iranian Immigrants to Canada

Correlation Coefficients between All Variables or Composite

Measures in the Model

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

1. Psychosocial adjustment − .12 −.23** −.33** −.17* −.05 .46** −.39**

2. Connectedness − −.22** .24** −.32** .27** −.10 −.01

3. Hassles − .23** .19* −.09 −.01 .33**

4. Separation − - .01 .30** −.38** .17*

5. Assimilation − −.33** .06 −.07

6. Ingroup Behavior − .20** .10

7. Outgroup Behavior − −.17*

8. Psychophysical Distress −

slide23

Safdar and Lay: Study with Iranian Immigrants to Canada

  • In another assessment we looked at types of daily hassles, cultural competence, psychological adjustment, depression, and overall psycho-physical distress.
  • Four types of daily hassles: general, family, outgroup, and ingroup.
  • Some results:
  • General hassles, outgroup hassles, and ingroup hassles each positively related to reported levels of depression and overall psycho-physical distress.
  • Family hassles unrelated to depression and overall psycho-physical distress.
  • Cultural competence negatively related to depression and overall psycho-physical distress.
slide24

6. Interest in interaction and

communication between

individuals from two different

cultures -- understanding the

differences and facilitating the

interactions.

slide25

E. Global Dimensions on Which Cultures (and Individuals) Can Be Located and Distinguished

Examples:

Individualistic cultures …….. Collectivistic cultures

slide26

E. Global Dimensions on Which Cultures (and Individuals) Can Be Located and Distinguished

Examples:

Individualistic cultures …….. Collectivistic cultures

Idiocentric individuals ….… Allocentric individuals

slide27

E. Global Dimensions on Which Cultures (and Individuals) Can Be Located and Distinguished

Examples:

Individualistic cultures …….. Collectivistic cultures

Idiocentric individuals ….… Allocentric individuals

Independent view of self … Interdependent view of self

slide28

F. Further Discussion of the Independent andInterdependent Views of Self

Markus & Kitayama (1991): Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotions, and motivation.

1. Universal aspects of self

slide30

Independent Self-construal:

In Western cultures there is a normative drive to become independent from others, to discover and express one’s unique attributes.

slide31

Interdependent Self-Construal:

In many non-Western cultures, the normative drive is to maintain an interdependence among individuals. In doing so, a person is not seen as separate from the social context. One recognizes that one’s behaviour is determined, contingent on, and to a large extent organized by what the person perceives to be the thoughts, feelings and actions of others in the relationship.

slide33

These differing self-construals have implications for cognition, motivation, and emotions.

slide34

In one study, participants from Western and Eastern cultures were asked separately to indicate on a rating scale:

1. In general, how similar are you to other people?

2. In general, how similar are other people to you?

slide35

Results

For Western culture individuals:

Tend to see themselves as dissimilar to other people-in-general.

Tend to see other people-in-general as similar to themselves.

slide36

Results

For Eastern culture individuals:

Tend to see themselves as similar to other people-in-general.

Tend to see other people-in-general as not similar to themselves.

slide37

These findings are seen to reflect the idea that in Western cultures people typically store a great deal of information about themselves, relative to the amount of information they store about others,

Whereas, in Eastern cultures people typically store a great deal of information about others, relative to the amount of information they store about themselves.

slide38

In another study, participants from a Western culture or an Eastern culture were asked to complete the “Who am I” questionnaire.

slide39

Responses were scored in terms of the proportion of who-am-I statements that referred to the person’s attributes or trait characteristics.

Results: Western culture participants made more self-references to their attributes than Eastern culture participants.

slide40

In the second part of this study, participants were given different versions of the “Who am I” questionnaire.

These versions included context

“Who am I” with my family

“Who am I” with my friends

“Who am I” at school

slide41

Responses were again scored in terms of the proportion of who-am-I statements that referred to the person’s attributes or trait characteristics.

Results: With context included the results were the opposite. Now Eastern culture participants made more self-references to their attributes than Western culture participants.

slide42

Choi (1999)

Is the relative lack of the fundamental attribution error due to a lack of dispositional beliefs for East Asians, or are East Asians simply more attuned to situations and their influence on social behaviour?

slide45

Kitayama and others (1997)

  • The prevalence of self-enhancement in the United States and self-criticism in Japan
  • Western culture Americans –
  • general sensitivity to positive self-relevant information or self-enhancement
slide46

Self-enhancement tendency is lessened or even reversed in many East Asian cultures.

  • There is a greater sensitivity to negative self-referent information.
slide47

3. This is not an indication of low self-esteem, however, and is not to be avoided. Rather, it is viewed as self-criticism that is designed to improve the individual in the interests of the larger group.

slide48

4. These tendencies may stem from or contribute to prevailing social situations in the different cultures or to the different interpretations of these situations

slide49

Morris and Peng (1994)

  • Two Similar ,Tragic Events in USA in 1991
  • Researchers content-analyzed reports of these two events in two newspapers
  • New York Times
  • World Journal (a Chinese languagenewspapers based in New York).
  • Focus of content analyses was on the nature of the explanation of the two events - why these two people had behaved as they did - for dispositional reasons or for situational reasons.