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Influences on Prosocial Behavior

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  1. Influences on Prosocial Behavior 1/28/13

  2. Plan for Today • Why do we help? • The Kitty Genovese case & it’s importance for social psychology • Individual differences that influence helping behavior

  3. Questionnaire Imagine yourself in each of the following situations. Pick the action that best describes what you would do. 6 Questions Write down the letter of your choice

  4. #1 You have come across a lost wallet with a large sum of money in it, as well as the identification of the owner. You: A) Return the wallet without letting the owner know who you are B) Return the wallet in hopes of receiving a reward C) Keep the wallet and the money D) Leave the wallet where you found it

  5. #2 A person in one of your classes is having trouble at home and with school work. You: A) Help the person as much as you can B) Tell the person not to bother you C) Leave the person alone to work out his or her own problems D) Agree to tutor the person for a reasonable fee

  6. #3 When it comes to cooperation when you would rather not, you usually: A) Cooperate if it is helpful to others B) Cooperate if it is helpful to yourself C) Refuse to get involved D) Avoid situations where you might be asked to cooperate

  7. #4 A neighbor calls you and asks for a ride to a store that is six blocks away. You: A) Refuse, thinking you will never need a favor from him (or her) B) Explain that you are too busy at the moment C) Immediately give the ride and wait while the neighbor shops D) Consent if the neighbor is a good friend

  8. #5 You are approached by someone asking for a contribution to a well-known charity. You: A) Give if there is something received in return B) Refuse to contribute C) Give whatever amount you can D) Pretend you are in a hurry

  9. #6 You are in a waiting room with another person. If you heard a scream in the adjoining room and the other person failed to respond, you would: A) Help the screaming person whether the other person helps or not B) Help the screaming person only if the other person does too C) Wait to see if the screaming continues D) Leave the room

  10. The Helping Orientation Questionnaire(Romer, 1986) Measures helping orientations/motives 4 “Helping Orientations” identified • Altruistic • Receptive Giving • Selfish • Inner Sustaining

  11. The 4 “Helping Orientations”

  12. #1 You have come across a lost wallet with a large sum of money in it, as well as the identification of the owner. You: A) Return the wallet without letting the owner know who you are. (Altruistic, 38%) B) Return the wallet in hopes of receiving a reward. (Receptive Giving, 47%) C) Keep the wallet and the money. (Selfish, 13%) D) Leave the wallet where you found it. (Inner Sustaining, 2%)

  13. #2 A person in one of your classes is having trouble at home and with school work. You: A) Help the person as much as you can. (Altruistic, 86%) B) Tell the person not to bother you.(Selfish, 1%) C) Leave the person alone to work out his or her own problems. (Inner Sustaining, 9%) D) Agree to tutor the person for a reasonable fee. (Receptive Giving, 4%)

  14. #3 When it comes to cooperation when you would rather not, you usually: A) Cooperate if it is helpful to others. (Altruistic, 61%) B) Cooperate if it is helpful to yourself. (Receptive Giving, 20%) C) Refuse to get involved. (Inner Sustaining, 3%) D) Avoid situations where you might be asked to cooperate.(Selfish, 16%)

  15. #4 A neighbor calls you and asks for a ride to a store that is six blocks away. You: A) Refuse, thinking you will never need a favor from him (or her). (Selfish, 1%) B) Explain that you are too busy at the moment. (Inner Sustaining, 10%) C) Immediately give the ride and wait while the neighbor shops. (Altruistic, 33%) D) Consent if the neighbor is a good friend. (Receptive Giving, 56%)

  16. #5 You are approached by someone asking for a contribution to a well-known charity. You: A) Give if there is something received in return. (Receptive Giving, 4%) B) Refuse to contribute. (Selfish, 11%) C) Give whatever amount you can. (Altruistic, 70%) D) Pretend you are in a hurry. (Inner Sustaining, 15%)

  17. #6 You are in a waiting room with another person. If you heard a scream in the adjoining room and the other person failed to respond, you would: A) Help the screaming person whether the other person helps or not. (Altruistic, 50%) B) Help the screaming person only if the other person does too. (Receptive Giving, 10%) C) Wait to see if the screaming continues. (Inner Sustaining, 15%) D) Leave the room. (Selfish, 6%)

  18. The 4 “Helping Orientations”

  19. Prosocial Behavior Actions that benefit other people or society as a whole (Twenge et al., 2007)

  20. Why Do People Help? Altruism (nothing expected in return) • Driven by empathy, compassion Egoism (something expected) • Driven by an obvious reward (a tax write-off) or a less obvious one (reducing one’s own distress)

  21. Helping Motives Social psychologists do not agreeon whether genuine altruism exists

  22. Why Help? Social Norms Reciprocity Norm: Maintain fairness in relationships Social Justice Norm: Help when someone deserves it, typically b/c of unfortunate circumstances Social Responsibility Norm: Help when others are in need & are dependent on us

  23. Helping Behavior in Emergencies The event that launched research… • Kitty Genovese • Murdered 1964

  24. Bystander Intervention Smoky Room & Noticing (Latané & Darley, 1970) • Fill out questionnaires • Aloneor with 2 other “participants” • Smoke starts pouring into the room from a vent • Alone – 75% report in < 2 minutes • With others– 10% report in 6 minutes

  25. Bystander Intervention Seizures &Assuming (Darley & Latané, 1968) • Discuss problems of University life over an intercom with other people • Heard 1 person lapse into “epileptic seizure” I-er-um-I think I-I need-er-if-if could-er-er somebody er-er-er-er-er-er give me a little-er-give me a little help here because-er-I-er-I'm-er-h-h-having a-a-a real problem-er right now and I-er-if somebody could help me out it would-it woulder-er-er s-s-sure be good ... because-er-there-er-ag cause I er-I-uh-I've got one of the-er-sei—er-er-things coming on and-and-and I could really use some help so if somebody would-ergive me a little h-help-uh-er-er-er-er c-ould somebody-erer-help-er-uh-uh-uh [choking sounds] ... I'm gonna die-er-er ... help-er-er-seizure [chokes, then quiet]. • No others – 85% sought help • 1others – 62% sought help • 4 others – 31% sought help

  26. Helping Behavior in Emergencies What about today?!? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KIvGIwLcIuw

  27. Bystander Effect Attempt to Help Assess Knowledge & Skills Assume Responsibility Interpret as Emergency No Help Offered or Given Notice the Incident

  28. Who Needs the Help? Characteristics of the one in need that increase the likelihood of getting help: • Being female • Similarity • Seeming deserving • Physical attractiveness Batson, 1991

  29. Individual Differences: Helping Behavior Gender Culture Personality

  30. Individual Differences: Culture Culture: the deeply learned confluence of language, beliefs, values, and behaviors that pervades every aspect of our lives.

  31. “Measuring helping behavior across cultures” (Levine, 2003) Main research questions? • Are there cross-cultural differences in helping behavior? • What cultural characteristics predict helping? How did Levine answer these questions? • Variety of helping behaviors • 36 cities in the U.S. & Worldwide

  32. “Measuring helping behavior across cultures” (Levine, 2003) What was the nature of the relationship between population density and helping behavior? • Negative correlation • ↑ PD = ↓ HB What culture had the most helping behavior? • Hispanic/Latino cultures

  33. “Measuring helping behavior across cultures” (Levine, 2003) Small Groups! What cultural/economic characteristics usually predicted higher levels of helping? • Lower economic productivity • Slower pace of life • Collectivist values related to social responsibility What are some of the challenges when conducting cross-cultural research?

  34. “Measuring helping behavior across cultures” (Levine, 2003) What does this all mean? • Are New Yorkers just rude people? • Power of the situation! • Helping tends to be less effected by the nature of the people than it is by the characteristics of the environment

  35. Individual Differences: Gender Children: few gender differences, girls score slightly higher Adults:it depends on the situation When do men help more? • In emergencies & potentially dangerous situations • In public & with strangers Atkins et al., 2005; Eagly & Crowley, 1986

  36. Individual Differences: Gender When do women help more? • Situation is assessed as less dangerous • Prosocial act is more routine or long-term (e.g., childcare) • Need is social support Atkins et al., 2005; Eagly & Crowley, 1986

  37. Complete this scale and bring score for Wednesday’s discussion 1 2 3 4 Strongly Disagree Disagree Agree Strongly Agree 1. On the whole, I am satisfied with myself. 2. At times I think I am no good at all. 3. I feel that I have a number of good qualities. 4. I am able to do things as well as most other people. 5. I feel I do not have much to be proud of. 6. I certainly feel useless at times. 7. I feel that I’m a person of worth, at least on an equal plane with others. 8. I wish I could have more respect for myself. 9. All in all, I am inclined to feel that I am a failure. 10. I take a positive attitude toward myself.

  38. How to Score Reverse score 2, 5, 6, 8, and 9 • If you put 1, change it to 4 • 2 = 3 • 3 = 2 • 4 = 1 Once you have reversed scored the above items, sum the 10 items and bring this number to class for Wednesday’s discussion