Ideas are not readily implemented • Sources of resistance to change • Role of communication in overcoming resistance to change • Putting ideas into practice • Reducing resistance to change • Climate for change
Machiavelli: The Prince “There is nothing more difficult to take in hand, more powerless to conduct or more uncertain in its success than to take the lead in the introduction of a new order of things because the innovators have for enemies all those who would have done well under the old conditions and lukewarm defenders in those who may do well."
Some Individual Reactions To Change • Opportunity • Challenge • Reward • Enthusiasm • Fulfilment • Motivation • Learning experience • Anxiety • Shock • Distrust • Anger • Stress • Resentment • Mutiny • Fear • Misunderstanding
Learning To Change • Unfreeze - current ways of doing things are no longer working. If we don't learn something new, we will fail. • Change - safe circumstances in which to experiment. Opportunity for training and practice. Support and encouragement. • Refreeze - put in supporting mechanisms. Reward. Appraise. Train.
Sources Of Resistance To New Ideas • Lack of resources • Lack of motivation • Procedural obstacles • Lack of commitment • Resistance to change • Perceived risk • Political undercurrents • Lack of co-operation • Distrust
Resistance To Change • Fear of the unknown, lack of information, threats to status, fear of failure, and lack of perceived benefits. • Not wanting to be treated as pawns in an organisational reshuffle. • People like to feel that they are in control of what is happening. • The more that change is imposed from the outside by others the more it will be resisted.
The Role Of Communications • The key to effecting change is to involve people early, consult with them and to get them to take ownership of A new idea. • Think of the organisation as an internal market for change initiatives where ideas have to be marketed. • Communication is the spearhead of ensuring that successful change can take place. It helps to overcome ambiguity and uncertainty and provides information and power to those who are the subject of change. It enables them to have control over their destiny and to understand why change is necessary.
Putting Ideas Into Practice (1) • An ability to get people to accept ideas. • An ability to cope with difficult obstacles. • An ability to plan and manage time in an effective manner. • An ability to create the enthusiasm and motivation to follow through ideas.
Putting Ideas Into Practice (2) • Create an awareness of problems that exist and encourage recognition of the need for change and A need to adopt the idea that is being put forward. • Point out the potential hazards and pitfalls of not accepting the need for change. • Stress the benefits of change to the individuals involved since they will only be motivated to accept and to adopt new ideas when they perceive and acknowledge that it is in their own best interest to do so.
Ideas may have to be sold to people who can authorise their implementation in order to arouse motivation. They are generally people with: Authority Control of A budget Ability Identifying opinion leaders, action initiators, people with status and influence in the group, and, those most affected in carrying out the changes required is very important. Influence
Reducing Resistance To Change (1) • Getting people to change their attitudes is fundamental to reducing resistance to new ideas. • A good way to counter resistance to change is to pre-empt the possibility of it occurring. • Getting people involved in the idea development process in the first place anticipates resistance to change. • Resistance is reduced because people feel that they have had the opportunity to participate and express their view.
Reducing Resistance To Change (2) • New ideas that involve substantial change need to be implemented gradually, smoothly and systematically. • Resistance to change can be softened by making the changes tentative rather than definite or permanent. • It is a good strategy to get people to try out ideas initially for a short period. • In addition people should be encouraged to give comments whether they think an idea is working. • If a new idea fails it does not cause its originator as much loss of face under such circumstances.
Reducing Resistance To Change (3) • Encouraging people to recognise that change is a normal part of life. • If they come to accept this view, they will not see change as out of the ordinary. • It can help them to become less emotionally attached to the status quo. • Cognitive mapping devices • COPE • PERT • Simulation
Potential Problem Analysis (1) 1. Determine exactly what should take place if the task is to be done successfully. 2. Employ reverse brainstorming to identify everything that can go wrong during implementation. 3. Detail highlighted problems. 4. Assess and evaluate impact of identified potential problems on the implementation of the whole project.
5. Look for causes of the identified new problems. 6. Assess the probability of occurrence of each one of the potential problems. 7. Determine ways of minimising the effect of the potential problems. 8. Develop contingency plans for the most serious potential problems. Potential Problem Analysis (2)
Corollaries To Murphy's Law • Nothing is as easy at it looks. • Everything takes longer than you think. • If there is a possibility of several things going wrong, the one that will cause the most damage will be the one to go wrong. • Left to themselves, things tend to go from bad to worse. • Whenever you set out to do something, something else must be done first. • Every solution breeds new problems.
Grousing - People may complain because they are required to do things in a different way. Errors of detail - When the detail is not critical it is usually possible to remedy the situation fairly easily. Elements that are critical to the functioning of the whole, however, are more problematic and may require thorough analysis and reflection. Apparently major errors - can be either real or supposed. Where the problem is real then the implementation of the whole project may be at risk. Post Implementation
Selling An Idea To A Sponsor • How do they see the organisation and their place in it? • What are their goals - immediate and long term? • How does the idea help achieve these goals? • What is the sponsor's needs - how can the idea address them? • What are the sponsor's prevailing mindsets? • What are the sponsor's system of values? • What style of management does the sponsor adopt?
Chips Analysis: Overcoming The Barriers • Costs: show how much it will cost to implement; how much it will save. • Help: show how it will aid managers perform their duties. • Innovation: stress the positive side of the new idea. • Prestige: highlight what is seen in it for them. • Security: show why it is a safe bet.
Always start with an attention getting hook Outline main message Give only 4-5 main messages Make a bridge between each key message and CHIPS Give frequent examples Summarise and conclude Always finish with a closing hook Selling Creative Ideas