Wilson’s program for reaching peace was known as the Fourteen Points. • It involved: self-determination, reduction of militarism, removal of trade barriers, etc.
Paris Peace Conference • Wilson did not want war reparations, just wanted Europe to handle disputes peacefully. • Big four: David Lloyd George, Georges Clemenceau, Vittorio Orlando, and Wilson. • Lenin did not come.
He did sign a Treaty of Friendship with Germany. • Wilson’s ultimate goal was to establish a League of Nations. • Article 10 was the heart of the plan, “a attack on one member of the league would be attack on all.” • Senators did not want to be dragged into future European conflicts.
The Peace Treaty • The French wanted harsh penalties from Germany. • The allies began taking Germany’s territories in the Middle East. • Allies also wanted Germany to pay $30bil in war reparations, couldn’t pay (seeds to WWII).
Reactions at Home • Wilson received great acclaim at home, but most Senators were afraid of the League of Nations. • Wilson went on a 23 day tour of the country to promote the League. • The tour was too grueling, Wilson suffered a stroke.
By July 2, 1921 the U.S. finally agreed on a treaty and new President Harding signed it. • War spurred the U.S. economy. • The U.S. was now the world’s largest creditor nation. • The war proved too difficult for the Britain economy and they declined as a world power.
Even though it had a new role of power, the U.S. choose to turn away from international affairs and concentrate on home. • Returning troops had a difficult time adjusting. • Minorities and women often had to give up jobs. • African troops still faced discrimination.