The Question of Jihad. Traditional Narrative Of Jihad. Ongoing spread of God’s religion Early Islamic conquests set the tone Islamic state is a conquest state dependant on spoils of war for income continued expansion
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“Fighting is ordained for you, though it be hateful to you; but it may well be that you hate a thing while it is good for you, and it may well be that you love a thing while it is bad for you. God knows, whereas you do not know. They ask you about the Sacred Month and fighting in it. Say: fighting in it is a grave act, but driving people from the Sacred Mosque, disbelieving in God and expelling His people from it is more grave in God’s eyes. Persecution is more serious than fighting. They will not stop fighting you until they drive you from your religion, if they can. And those who leave their religion from among you and dies a disbeliever, indeed all their deeds will be forfeit in this life and the next. They are the people of Hell, eternally condemned to it.” (2:217)
Jihad in Sufism: the war against the lower self (nafs)
Hadith of the Greater Jihad: returning from the Raid on Banu Mustaliq, the Prophet says, ‘Now for the greater/est jihad, the jihad against al-nafs.’