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Palestinian Islamic Jihad. By: Nathaniel McDanel Lyndsey Dennis Aralya Phinnith. Introduction. “The war will continue until Israel ceases to exist and the last Jew is eliminated from the world. Israel is entirely evil and must be wiped off the face of the earth”. History.

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palestinian islamic jihad

Palestinian Islamic Jihad

By: Nathaniel McDanel

Lyndsey Dennis

Aralya Phinnith

introduction
Introduction
  • “The war will continue until Israel ceases to exist and the last Jew is eliminated from the world. Israel is entirely evil and must be wiped off the face of the earth”
history
History
  • Harakat al-Jihad al-Islami al-Filastini or Palestinian Islamic Jihad was founded in 1979 by Fathi Shqaqui and other extremist Palestinians in Egypt.
slide4
Shaqaqi was influenced to create PIJ during the Islamic Revolution in Iran and that he believed if he could united Arab and Muslim world that it would create a greater Islamic state of Palestine and bring about the downfall of Israel.
slide5
The Egyptian government expelled PIJ to Gaza after they learned about their involvement with a radical who killed President Anwar Sadat in 1981.
slide6
The first active cells of Islamic Jihad surfaced in Lebanon where they conducted terrorist attacks against Israel and kidnapped westerners in Lebanon.
slide7
Islamic Jihad has strengthened in power by forming alliances with other groups like Hamas, Hezbollah and has links with Al-Qaeda.
slide8
One notable member of Palestinian Islamic Jihad was Ramzi Yousef who attacked the World Trade Center in 1993, and today a lot members make up Al-Qaeda and are of Osama Bin Ladin’s inner circle like Ayman al-Zawahri and Morhammad Atef
slide10

Who & Why

Finances

Suicide Bombings

slide11

Who & Why

  • PIJ recruitment and operations

- Much more secretive than other Terrorists groups.

  • Reoccupation of Israelis in many Palestinian urban
  • centers in first quarter of 2002.

PIJ now receives more volunteers.

  • PIJ : Schools, Mosques, Social Services
  • for the poor.
  • Do not invest in the religious full time training
  • of children.

- Ideological framework of PIJ: Fundamentally

Nationalistic and focused on the struggle vs. Israel.

United States Institute of Peace

slide12

Who & Why

  • Reasons why Individuals join PIJ

- To ensure Palestine’s safety.

  • Constant attacks by Israeli artillery.

- Economic Strangulation.

- Constant harassment and humiliation.

  • Israeli’s former image of Suicide Bombers.
  • Young Muslim men.

- Poorly educated.

- Religiously zealous.

Blanche, E. (2003). Cult of the kamikaze. Military & Government Collection, 334

slide13

Who & Why

  • Members of the PIJ

- Do not come from impoverished families.

  • Not necessarily motivated by desperation or
  • religious fervour.
  • Affluent and well educated; at least at the general
  • public level.
  • Broad range of of social and professional
  • background.

- Only religiously modest before, but after…

  • Not crazed or disgruntled loners! ! !

Blanche, E. (2003). Cult of the kamikaze. Military & Government Collection, 334

slide14

Who & Why

  • Radical Leaders - *Indoctrination Methods*

“I think these groups are able to manipulate innate

emotions… in much the same way that the fast food

and porn industries manipulate innate desires…

[This manipulation] creates a sincere commitment

equal to the one a mother feels when she sacrifices

herself for her child.”

- Atran

Blanche, E. (2003). Cult of the kamikaze. Military & Government Collection, 334

slide15

Finances

  • Economic Jihad
  • Concept: religious duty; if not by physically
  • fighting Islam’s enemies then by funding.
  • Quranic verse in Surah 9 Verse 41:
  • “Fight with your possessions and your souls in
  • the way of Allah.”
  • Several Islamist Spiritual leaders emphasizes
  • ‘Economic Jihad’ as a religious duty for all
  • Muslims.

Levitt, M. (2005). Countering the theological case for ‘economic jihad’ is vital. The Washington Institute

For Near East Policy. Retrieved from: http://www.washingtoninstitute.org/opedsPDFs/42a8bf8bbf6a6.pdf

slide16

Finances

  • Economic Jihad in America
  • U.S. based PIJ members and supporters:
  • Fundraising
  • Propaganda

- Proselytizing activities

Mueller, R. S. (2005). Congressional Testimony. Federal Bureau of Investigations. Retreived from:

http://www.fbi.gov/congress/congress05/mueller021605.htm

slide17

Finances

  • Economic Jihad
  • PIJ activist Fawaz Damra called on supporters
  • in U.S. to support Economic Jihad.
  • Served as an officer of the Afghan Services
  • Bureau – a non profit organization in Brooklyn.
  • Contributed in fundraising for the PIJ.
  • Cleveland, Ohio 1991:
  • conducted an auction for a medal in honor of
  • a PIJ martyr, Nidal Zalloum.

Levitt, M. (2005). Countering the theological case for ‘economic jihad’ is vital. The Washington Institute

For Near East Policy. Retrieved from: http://www.washingtoninstitute.org/opedsPDFs/42a8bf8bbf6a6.pdf

slide18

Finances

  • Charitable front organizations
  • Disguised as humanitarian organizations/support.
  • Donors are also well aware of ‘Economic Jihad.’
  • Donors feel that are fulfilling a religious obligation.

Levitt, M. (2005). Countering the theological case for ‘economic jihad’ is vital. The Washington Institute

For Near East Policy. Retrieved from: http://www.washingtoninstitute.org/opedsPDFs/42a8bf8bbf6a6.pdf

slide19

Finances

  • Iran
  • Frequently meets with other Terrorists groups.
  • Actively encourages destruction of peace processes.
  • Provides money : 1million – 100million.
  • Supplies arms, material support, training, and
  • operational guidance.

Christopher, 1996. Fighting terrorism: challenges for peacemakers. United States Coast Guard.

Retrieved from : http://www.uscg.mil/hq/gm/nmc/security/peace.htm

National Commision of Terrorism. Countering the changing threat of international terrorism. United States

Coast Guard. Retrieved from : http://www.uscg.mil/legal/homeland%5Flegislation/text/countering%5Fthe%5Fchanging%5Fthreat%5Fof%5Finternational%5Fterrorism.html

slide20

Finances

  • Iran
  • Most active state supporter.
  • Iranian Revolutionary Guard Corps
  • Ministry of Intelligence and Security
  • Planning and execution of Terrorists acts.
  • provide funding, training, weapons, logistical
  • resources, and guidance.

National Commision of Terrorism. Countering the changing threat of international terrorism. United States

Coast Guard. Retrieved from : http://www.uscg.mil/legal/homeland%5Flegislation/text/countering%5Fthe%5Fchanging%5Fthreat%5Fof%5Finternational

%5Fterrorism.html

slide21

Finances

  • Al-Qaeda and Osama Bin Laden
  • 1998 Ahmed al-Naggar.

“The funding of the organisation came [primarily]

through financial support from the Saudi

Osama Bin Laden.”

- Funded by Bin Laden’s personal fortune since early 90’s.

  • Also now considered part of Al-Qaeda’s network.

Anoymous. (2001). Countering terrorism. Times-Newspapers. Retrieved from :

http://www.infowars.com/saved%20pages/Prior_Knowledge/10_years_cell.htm

slide22

Suicide Bombings

  • Pioneered in early 80’s
  • Lebanon’s Shi’ite Muslim extremist group Hizballah
  • - inspired by Iran’s use of human minesweepers.
  • 1994: PIJ along with other terrorists groups.
  • Suicide bombings were controversial
  • 1996: 20% supported practice.
  • Today: 70% support suicide bombings.
  • Swamped with volunteers.

Van Biema, D., Hamad, J., Moaveni, A., Radwan, A., Rees, M. (2001). Why the bombers keep coming.

Military & Government Collection, 158.

slide23

Suicide Bombings

  • Jenin: Suicide bombing capital of the West Bank
  • Long history of militancy.
  • - Israeli-Palestinian war
  • - Izzadin Al Kassem
  • Refugee camps as focal point of Palestinian resistance.
  • PIJ are extremely popular in these areas.
  • More than a dozen suicide bombers.

Hammer, J., Ephron, D. (2002). A war’s human toll. Newsweek, 139

slide24

Suicide Bombings

  • PIJ - most active in suicide bombings
  • Influence has spread:
  • Kurdistan, Pakistan, Kashmir, Chechnya, China,
  • Turkey, and across Southeast Asia.
  • Suicide bombings are very efficient
  • $ 1,000 .
  • Easily transported
  • Much more difficult to spot

“ A suicide bomber is a two-legged missile. Once

it’s launched, it’s very difficult to intercept.”

- Uzi Landau, Israeli Internal Security Minister

Van Biema, D., Hamad, J., Moaveni, A., Radwan, A., Rees, M. (2001). Why the bombers keep coming.

Military & Government Collection, 158.

purpose of the pij
Purposeof the PIJ
  • Opposition to Palestinian authority policy and the sentiments of the majority of the Palestinian population
  • Concentrates entirely on armed revolt

Goals

  • Destruction of the State of Israel (source of moral and spiritual corruption)
  • Liberation of Palestine & pan-Islamic revival
what have they done
What have they done?
  • 1990’s- tried to sabotage the Oslo peace process.
  • 2003- Tried to end “cease fire” (hudna) achieved by Israel & Palestine's
  • May 19, 2003- Shopping mall

3 dead, 83 wounded

  • October 4, 2003- Maxim Restaurant

21 dead, 60 wounded

The PIJ claimed responsibility through a televised video cassette and threatened that there would be thousands more.

  • February 25, 2005- suicide bombing attack in Tel Aviv. 5 dead, 50 wounded
recruits
Recruits
  • PIJ has a student wing
  • Actively recruits women in Northern West Bank Universities, towns, and villages.
  • Once a prospective suicide bomber is found the organization invests considerable effort in convincing women that this activity does not contradict Islamic principles nor “the daily duties of Muslim women.

The suicide bomber responsible for the attack in Tel Aviv.

women suicide bombers
Women Suicide Bombers
  • The shopping mall incident – 19 yr. old student Heiba Daragmeh detonated an explosive devise that was strapped to her body.
  • The Maxim restaurant – Hanadi Jaradat 29 yr. old trainee lawyer. Her brother and cousin had been killed by Israeli forces and she was not yet married.

“With the strength and heroism of Allah, I decided to become the sixth female suicide bomber to turn her body into shrapnel which will penetrate the heard of every Zionist settler in my country… (Al-Arabia TV, October 5, 2003)

other helpers
Other helpers
  • 16 yr. old Tamer Khuweir - apprehended by Israeli security forces on March 9, 2004 as he prepared to carry out a suicide attack. Tamer’s brother claims he was brainwashed
  • Dr. Sami Al Arian- Computer engineering professor at the University of Southern Florida. Arrested on February 20, 2003 and indicted with 50 “terrorism” related charges. He is the North American head of the PIJ.
plans for the future
Plans for the Future
  • Have not yet directly targeted U.S. interests (although U.S. citizens have died in attacks), continue to direct attacks against Israeli interests.
  • Remains a relatively small movement
  • According to opinion polls, only 4-5% of Palestinian population supports PIJ because it lacks the institutional networks like those built by Hamas.
  • Enables PIJ to concentrate on ideological goals and disregard politics!
references
References
  • www.intelligence.org (February 2005)
  • http://enwikipedia.org
  • http://library.nps.navy.mil (April 2005)
  • http://www.ict.org.il
  • www.military.com
slide33

References

Anonymous. (2001). Countering terrorism. Times-Newspapers. Retrieved from:

http://www.infowars.com/saved%20pages/Prior_Knowledge/10_years_cell.htm

Blanche, E. (2003). Cult of the kamikaze. Military & Government Collection, 334.

Christopher. (1996). Fighting terrorism: challenges for peacemakers. United States

Coast Guard. Retrieved from: http://www.uscg.mil/hq/gm/nmc/security/peace.htm

Hammer, J. Ephron, D. (2002). A war’s human toll. Newsweek, 139.

Levitt, M. (2005). Countering the theological case for ‘economic jihad’ is vital. The

Washington Institute for Near East Policy. Retrieved from:

http://www.washingtoninstitute.org/opedsPDFs/42a8bf8bbf6a6.pdf

Mueller, R. S. (2005). Congressional Testimony. Federal Bureau of Investigations.

Retrieved from: http://www.fbi.gov/congress05/mueller021605.htm

National Commission of Terrorism. Countering the changing threat of international

terrorism. United States Coast Guard. Retrieved from: http://www.uscg.mil/legal/homeland%5Flegislation/text/countering%5Fthe%5Fchanging%5Fthreat%5Fof%5Finternational%5Fterrorism.html

Oreck, A. (2005). Palestinian islamic jihad. Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved from:

http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Terrorism/PIJ.html

slide34

References

United States Institute of Peace. (2002). Islamic extremist: how do they mobilize

support. Retrieved from: http://www.usip.org/pubs/specialreports/sr89.html

Van Biema, D., Hamad, J., Moaveni, A., Radwan, A. & Rees, M. (2001). Why the

bombers keep coming. Military & Government Collection, 158.

Weisberg, A. (2003). Islamic jihad. FrontPage Magazine. Retrieved from:

http://www.frontpagemag.com/Articles/Readarticle.asp?ID=7614