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Impacts of Undernutrition. Text adapted from The World Food Problem Leathers & Foster, 2009. ttp://www.amazon.com/World-Food-Problem-Toward-Undernutrition/dp/1588266389. Low Birth Weight Babies. Born to undernourished mothers PEM Iron deficiency Much more likely to die in first year

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impacts of undernutrition

Impacts of Undernutrition

Text adapted from

The World Food Problem

Leathers & Foster, 2009

ttp://www.amazon.com/World-Food-Problem-Toward-Undernutrition/dp/1588266389

low birth weight babies
Low Birth Weight Babies
  • Born to undernourished mothers
    • PEM
    • Iron deficiency
  • Much more likely to die in first year
  • Early nutrition in girl’s life can affect baby
delayed menarche
Delayed Menarche
  • Undernourished girls produce less estrogen
    • Associated with body fat
  • Lower estrogen delays the age of menstruation:
    • USA: 12.8 yrs old
    • Rural India: 14.4 yrs old
    • Rwanda: 17 yrs old
breast feeding as birth control lactational amenorrhea
Breast Feeding as Birth Control(Lactational Amenorrhea)
  • Prolactin stimulates breast milk
    • Also suppresses ovulation
  • Producing breast milk also reduces fat storage
    • Thus reduces estrogen
    • Thus impedes ovulation
  • Very effective for 6-12 months after birth
  • Most important form of birth control in developing world

http://farm1.static.flickr.com/182/424570275_2152aa84c8.jpg?v=0

breast feeding
Breast Feeding
  • Improves baby’s health
  • Contains all nutrients
  • Fights infection
    • Antibodies in milk
  • Guaranteed food supply
    • No competition with other family members
  • Sanitary food supply
  • 1.5 million children in developing world die
    • because they are not breast fed

ftp://ftp.fao.org/wfd/2007/photogallery/pages/en/index_en.htm

aids and breast feeding
AIDS and Breast Feeding
  • Breast milk can pass AIDS virus
  • More likely if mother has vitamin A deficiency
    • 32% if deficiency
    • 7% if normal
  • Bottle alternative may be less safe
    • 6x higher risk of death due to diarrhea or respiratory diseases
  • UNICEF recommends mothers with AIDS to breast feed
    • for first 6 months

Mother and child with AIDS

impact of undernutrition on infant mortality
Impact of Undernutrition on Infant Mortality
  • Probability of dying by age 5
    • 15.5% in least developed nations
    • 0.85% in industrialized nations
  • Diarrhea leading killer
    • Pneumonia
    • Influenza
    • Bronchitis
    • Whooping cough
    • Measles
  • Malnutrition
    • contributes to ½ of these deaths in developing world

Infant Mortality

http://host2.equinox.ie/ConnectWorld/procontent/Global_Themes/upload/infant-mortality.gif

impact of undernutrition on intellectual development
Impact of Undernutrition on Intellectual Development
  • Protein supplements given during pregnancy
    • Improved cognitive function in children through age 6-7 yrs.
  • IQ reduced by child’s deficiency in
    • Iron
    • Iodine
    • Protein

http://www.btbetterworld.com/media/International/images/smiling-african-boy_290.jpg

impact of undernutrition on education
Impact of Undernutrition on Education
  • Missed school days
  • Special education needs
  • Low test scores
  • Repeated grades
  • Attention deficit disorder
    • Decreased attention span
    • Impaired memory
    • Disobedience
    • Distractibility
    • Reduced progress

http://www.wacm.info/images/Kids%20in%20classroom%20girl.jpg

impact of undernutrition on labor productivity
Impact of Undernutrition on Labor Productivity
  • Work capacity drops severely
    • Calorie deficiency
    • Iron deficiency
  • More likely unemployed
  • Taller individuals
    • Better nourished
    • More productive
    • Stronger

http://afe.easia.columbia.edu/china/geog/RicePlowing.gif

undernutrition in the developing world
Undernutrition in the Developing World
  • 20% of the developing world suffers from undernutrition

Madigascar undernourished children

http://mongabay.com/music/06/0502unicef.jpg

number of undernourished were dropping
Number of Undernourished Were Dropping
  • 918 million
    • 1970s
  • 906 million
    • 1980s
  • 800 million
    • 2000
  • Biggest drop in Asia
    • 25% drop
  • Least drop sub-Saharan Africa
    • 5% drop

http://www.satyamag.com/sat.site.images/hunger.jpg

seasonality of undernutrition
Seasonality of Undernutrition
  • Grain prices lowest right after harvest
    • Nutrition good
      • 2,000 Calories/day in Mozambique
    • Then supplies dwindle
  • Grain prices highest before harvest
    • Hungry season
      • 1,430 Calories/day in Mozambique
    • Foraging for wild foods
      • Termites, caterpillars, grasshoppers, locusts
criteria for worst off countries
Criteria for worst-off countries
  • Calories/person
    • D.R. Congo, Burundi, Eritrea, Somalia, Afghanistan, Tajikistan
  • Child nutrition
    • North Korea, Afghanistan, Burundi, Eritrea, Somalia
  • Mortality rates for children
    • Sierra Leone, Angola, Afghanistan
  • Low Birth weight babies
    • Bangladesh, Haiti, Yemen, India

Rural Bangladesh Women

http://www.thp.org/sai00/bangladesh/bangpro.jpg

what kinds of people are undernourished
What Kinds of People are Undernourished?
  • Rural poor
    • 65% of people are rural in low income countries
  • Children
    • Especially weaning
  • Pregnant, Lactating women
  • Girls
    • Food diverted to brothers
  • Uneducated families
  • Large families
  • Elderly

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