Impacts of Undernutrition - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Impacts of Undernutrition

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  1. Impacts of Undernutrition Text adapted from The World Food Problem Leathers & Foster, 2009 ttp://www.amazon.com/World-Food-Problem-Toward-Undernutrition/dp/1588266389

  2. Low Birth Weight Babies • Born to undernourished mothers • PEM • Iron deficiency • Much more likely to die in first year • Early nutrition in girl’s life can affect baby

  3. Delayed Menarche • Undernourished girls produce less estrogen • Associated with body fat • Lower estrogen delays the age of menstruation: • USA: 12.8 yrs old • Rural India: 14.4 yrs old • Rwanda: 17 yrs old

  4. Breast Feeding as Birth Control(Lactational Amenorrhea) • Prolactin stimulates breast milk • Also suppresses ovulation • Producing breast milk also reduces fat storage • Thus reduces estrogen • Thus impedes ovulation • Very effective for 6-12 months after birth • Most important form of birth control in developing world http://farm1.static.flickr.com/182/424570275_2152aa84c8.jpg?v=0

  5. Breast Feeding • Improves baby’s health • Contains all nutrients • Fights infection • Antibodies in milk • Guaranteed food supply • No competition with other family members • Sanitary food supply • 1.5 million children in developing world die • because they are not breast fed ftp://ftp.fao.org/wfd/2007/photogallery/pages/en/index_en.htm

  6. AIDS and Breast Feeding • Breast milk can pass AIDS virus • More likely if mother has vitamin A deficiency • 32% if deficiency • 7% if normal • Bottle alternative may be less safe • 6x higher risk of death due to diarrhea or respiratory diseases • UNICEF recommends mothers with AIDS to breast feed • for first 6 months Mother and child with AIDS

  7. Impact of Undernutrition on Infant Mortality • Probability of dying by age 5 • 15.5% in least developed nations • 0.85% in industrialized nations • Diarrhea leading killer • Pneumonia • Influenza • Bronchitis • Whooping cough • Measles • Malnutrition • contributes to ½ of these deaths in developing world Infant Mortality http://host2.equinox.ie/ConnectWorld/procontent/Global_Themes/upload/infant-mortality.gif

  8. Impact of Undernutrition on Intellectual Development • Protein supplements given during pregnancy • Improved cognitive function in children through age 6-7 yrs. • IQ reduced by child’s deficiency in • Iron • Iodine • Protein http://www.btbetterworld.com/media/International/images/smiling-african-boy_290.jpg

  9. Impact of Undernutrition on Education • Missed school days • Special education needs • Low test scores • Repeated grades • Attention deficit disorder • Decreased attention span • Impaired memory • Disobedience • Distractibility • Reduced progress http://www.wacm.info/images/Kids%20in%20classroom%20girl.jpg

  10. Impact of Undernutrition on Labor Productivity • Work capacity drops severely • Calorie deficiency • Iron deficiency • More likely unemployed • Taller individuals • Better nourished • More productive • Stronger http://afe.easia.columbia.edu/china/geog/RicePlowing.gif

  11. Undernutrition in the Developing World • 20% of the developing world suffers from undernutrition Madigascar undernourished children http://mongabay.com/music/06/0502unicef.jpg

  12. Number of Undernourished Were Dropping • 918 million • 1970s • 906 million • 1980s • 800 million • 2000 • Biggest drop in Asia • 25% drop • Least drop sub-Saharan Africa • 5% drop http://www.satyamag.com/sat.site.images/hunger.jpg

  13. Seasonality of Undernutrition • Grain prices lowest right after harvest • Nutrition good • 2,000 Calories/day in Mozambique • Then supplies dwindle • Grain prices highest before harvest • Hungry season • 1,430 Calories/day in Mozambique • Foraging for wild foods • Termites, caterpillars, grasshoppers, locusts

  14. Criteria for worst-off countries • Calories/person • D.R. Congo, Burundi, Eritrea, Somalia, Afghanistan, Tajikistan • Child nutrition • North Korea, Afghanistan, Burundi, Eritrea, Somalia • Mortality rates for children • Sierra Leone, Angola, Afghanistan • Low Birth weight babies • Bangladesh, Haiti, Yemen, India Rural Bangladesh Women http://www.thp.org/sai00/bangladesh/bangpro.jpg

  15. What Kinds of People are Undernourished? • Rural poor • 65% of people are rural in low income countries • Children • Especially weaning • Pregnant, Lactating women • Girls • Food diverted to brothers • Uneducated families • Large families • Elderly http://cache.eb.com/eb/image?id=102981&rendTypeId=4