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Journal Entry #8 Copy AND Answer May 8, 2012 Tuesday. True OR False: 1. All societies have school systems. 2. Violence and other criminal activity are not a problem for schools in the United States. 3. Belief systems vary little from religion to religion . Place H.W. on your desk!.

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journal entry 8 copy and answer may 8 2012 tuesday
Journal Entry #8Copy AND AnswerMay 8, 2012Tuesday

True OR False:

1. All societies have school systems.

2. Violence and other criminal activity are not a problem for schools in the United States.

3.Belief systems vary little from religion to religion.

Place H.W. on your desk!

all societies have school systems
All societies have school systems:
  • True: All societies formally organize schools because that is the most effective way to pass on norms , values, and skills.
  • False: Education in small pre-industrial societies takes place within the family, and children learn by participating in adult activities.
violence and other criminal activity are not a problem for schools in the united states
Violence and other criminal activity are not a problem for schools in the United States.
  • True: With rare exceptions, American public schools are generally safe institutions of learning for students.
  • False: School safety is a growing issue of concern in the United States today as a result of several well-publicized incidents of school violence.
belief systems vary little from religion to religion
Belief systems vary little from religion to religion.
  • True: Human efforts to understand life’s mysteries have always focused on worshiping one or more supreme beings.
  • False: Religions around the world vary in their forms of worship, beliefs, and practices.
game plan for today
Game Plan for Today:
  • Go over Chapter 12 Quiz
    • 2 QUIZ GRADES
  • Chapter 14:1
    • The Sociology of Education
  • Activity

Chapter 14 AND 17 will be combined into


TestANDNotebook Check

focus and review 11 30
Focus and Review 11/30
  • This will be step 1 in a 45 minute- 1 hour long activity in class, you must focus and work diligently
  • Why are you in school? What are the reasons that school exists?
    • From a sociological perspective
    • List using bulleted form
activity extending focus and review
Activity Extending Focus and Review
    • Review the 3 main perspectives of Sociology.
      • What are they?
    • With your partner, attach one of the three philosophies to each of your reasons for being in school.
  • Share out, help the class complete the chart (popcorn)
now again add to your focus and review
Now, again add to your focus and review:
  • Brainstorm with your partner what you consider to be the perfect education system. Make sure you LIST the basic needs you want your education system to meet….at least 5.
chapter 14 education and religion

CHAPTER 14Education and Religion

Section 1: The Sociology of Education

Section 2: The Sociology of Religion

chapter 14 section 1
Chapter 14: Section 1

The Sociology of Education


Section 1: The Sociology of Education

  • Explain how the views of functionalist, conflict, and interactionist sociologists differ concerning education.
  • Identify some of the current issues in American education.
take notes by hand on 10 slides
Take notes by hand on 10 slides
  • Slides will have this symbol on them if you need to have that information:
what is education
What is Education??
  • Consists of the roles and normsthat ensure the transmission of knowledge, values, and patterns of behavior from one generation to the next.
what is schooling
What is Schooling?
  • Formal education, which involves instruction by specially trained teachers who follow officially recognized policies.
did you know
Did You Know??
  • The world schoolhas its origins in the Greek word for leisure. Although school might not feel like a leisure activity, the word’s origins reveal the early history of education. Before industrialization, only the wealthy and some members of the clergy were formally educated. These groups had enough leisure time to devote to study. Modern formal education began to develop after industrializationled to the need to train people for specific jobs and after childlabor laws freed children from having to work.
  • What two major events helped contribute to the development of modern education?

Industrialization andchild labor laws

different sociological perspectives on education
Different sociological perspectives on education
  • Functionalist
  • Conflict
  • Interactionist
focus and review
Focus and review
  • One of the views of the conflict perspective is that opportunities for success in education are distributed unequally.
    • List 4-5 evidences of unequal opportunities in education and briefly explain why you believe that is an evidence of unequal opportunity.
functionalist perspective start here

Section 1: The Sociology of Education

Functionalist Perspective: START HERE
  • Functionalist – schools help maintain the stability and smooth operation of society.
    • Teaching Knowledge and Skills: Core curriculum
    • Transmission of Culture: Patriotism, cooperation, obeying rules, respecting authority.
    • Social Integration: “Melting Pot”
    • Occupational Placement: Training young people for the “real world”; College examinations in Japan
conflict perspective
Conflict Perspective:
  • Conflict – the educational system serves to limit the potential of certain people and groups to gain power and social rewards.
    • Social Control: Goal is to produce cooperative adult workers who will willingly accept the demands of those in power.
      • Hidden curriculum: transmission by schools of cultural goals that are NOT openly acknowledged.
        • EX: Be punctual, stand in line, obey authority, etc….
conflict perspective cont d
Conflict Perspective (cont’d)
  • Tracking: involves the assignment of students to different types of educational programs, such as general studies, vocational training, and college preparatory studies.
    • Conflict sociologists view tracking as a means by which the wealthy and powerful maintain their position in society, AND is a method of classroom instruction that focuses on different tracks that serve to maintain the status quo.
conflict perspective cont d1
Conflict Perspective (cont’d)
  • Education and Socioeconomic Status:
    • Educational achievement appears to be tied strongly to socioeconomic status.
      • EX: Minority groups tend to have less educational success.
    • Conflict theorists believe that socioeconomic status affects the following:
      • Expectations families have for child’s achievement
      • Home environment
      • Paying for expenses for college

Turn to pg. 355

case study
Case Study:
  • A 2001 Chicago Tribune study examined the relationship between student achievement and spending per student in about 800 school districts. The results found that spending per student did NOT have a significant effect on student achievement. For example, one school that spent about $5,900 per student had the same percentage of students pass tests – 93% - as a school that spent about $10,600 per student…..continued….

HOWEVER, a recent study by the Harvard Graduate School of Education did find a link between low income and the development of children below school age. The study examined children from birth to age 3 and found that increasesin family income resulted in improved learning and development.


What do you think is the reason

for these results?

focus review
  • Turn to pg. 359
  • Answer #1
  • A second question:
    • Do you think we should give parents $$$ to pay for their child to go to private school?
interactionist perspective
Interactionist Perspective:
  • Interactionist – students’ educational achievements and success are shaped in part by teacher-student interactions.
    • Teachers let students know what is expected of them, and the students perform according to these expectations: self-fulfilling prophecy

Current Issues in American Education


  • to address a decline in the level of the quality of education; has led to some improvements
  • provides school choice through vouchers, charter schools, and options such as homeschooling
  • educational reform
  • educational alternatives
  • has led to the use of security measures, zero tolerance policies, and conflict-resolution programs
  • violence in the schools
  • bilingual education
  • controversial, particularly in states with many Hispanics; has led to “English Only” movement

The Sociology of Education

a few definitions
A few definitions:

1. Charter schools: funded with public money but are privately operated and run.

2. School Choice: Parents may receive a voucher equal to the amount their state spends on education for their child. Parents are then free to use the voucher to pay tuition at the school of their choice – charter, private, religious.

turn to page 359
Turn to Page 359
  • Question #1:
    • For: They offer innovative approaches to curriculum and teaching , enable students to learn in small-school settings, and have shown rising test scores and graduation rates.
    • Against: Charter schools have not been operating long enough for test scores and graduation rates to measure success; they serve only a small segment of society, and they offer little more than basic curriculum while taking public school funding.
question 2
Question #2:
  • Agree:
    • To provide equal education opportunities and to ensure adequate educational standards, all schools should operate under the SAME rules and regulations.
  • Disagree:
    • Private schools do NOT receive government funding and so should not have to operate under the same rules and regulations that public schools do…..however, does not address issues of charter schools.
more definitions
More definitions:

3. Homeschooling:

  • A system in which a child’s main education is undertaken by parents at home.
    • Score just as high on SAT and attend college
why do parents prefer homeschooling
Why do Parents Prefer Homeschooling?
  • 48.9%  Can give child a better education at home.
  • 38.4%  Religious reasons
  • 25.6%  Poor learning environment at school
  • 16.8%  Family reasons
  • 15.1%  To develop character/morality
  • 12.1%  Object to what school teaches
  • 11.6%  School does NOT challenge child
  • 11.5%  Other problems with available schools
  • 9.0%  Student behavior problems at school
  • 8.2%  child has special needs/ disability

1999 study by Department of Education

and some more definitions
ANDsome more definitions:

4. Zero tolerance:

  • A set of policies created to prevent school violence.

5. Bilingual education: a system in which non-English-speaking students are taught in their native languages until they are proficient enough in English to attend regular classes.

6. “English Only”:
  • Movement that has tried to end bilingual education by having English declared as the official recognized language.
    • More than 20 states around U.S. have already passed laws making English their official language!
video stupid in america http www youtube com watch v bx4pn aiofw
Video: Stupid in America
  • In your F & R book, write down some ideas presented in the video for educational reform.
  • At the end of the video, I want you to rank these ideas from best to worst, in your opinion.
the sociology of religion
The Sociology of Religion

Chapter 14: Section 2


Section 2: The Sociology of Religion

  • Identify the basic societal needs that religion serves.
  • Describe the distinctive features of religion in American society.
focus review1
  • Sacred objects and practices are those objects and practices that inspire awe, that are considered part of the supernatural world, or that represent the supernatural world.
    • List all sacred objects or practices of any world religion that you can think of.
sacred profane at heart of all religions
Sacred & Profaneat heart of all religions:
  • Sacred:
    • Anything that is considered to be part of the supernatural world and that inspires respect and reverence.
  • Profane:
      • Anything considered to be part of the ordinary world and, thus, common place and familiar.
need some examples
Need some examples???
  • Cow:
    • Hindu  sacred
    • Christian  profane
  • Wafer:
    • Christian  sacred
    • Hindu  profane
the city of jerusalem in israel is considered a sacred site in what three major world religions
The city of Jerusalem in Israel is considered a sacred site in what three major world religions???

Christianity, Islam, and Judaism

what do you think
What do you think?
  • According to conflict theorists, what problems might result from 3 major religions sharing a sacred site?
  • It might lead to tensions and conflict among the different religious groups, which has indeed been the case in Jerusalem.
what is religion
What is Religion??
  • Defined as a system of roles and norms that is organized around the sacred realm and that binds people together in social groups.
why are sociologists concerned about religion
Why are sociologists concerned about religion??
  • They focus on social characteristics of religion and consequences that religion has for society.
    • EX: Functionsof religion
what do you think1
What do you think?

What are some functionsof religion?

functions of religion

Section 2: The Sociology of Religion

Functions of Religion

1. Social Cohesion – strengthening of bonds among people; sense of belonging; less suicides.

2. Social Control –encourages conformity to the norms of society; Confession & Communion.

3. Emotional Support –to provide emotional support during difficult times (EX: death)

the nature of religion
The Nature of Religion:

Rituals & Symbols

Belief Systems

Organizational Structures

rituals symbols
Rituals & Symbols:
  • Ritual:
    • Established pattern of behavior through which a group of believers experiences the sacred.
      • Examples:
        • Baptisms, weddings, funerals, worship services, etc….
belief systems
Belief Systems:

3 main basic types:




  • A belief that spirits actively influence human life.
    • EX: Animals, plants, rivers, mountains, wind, etc….
      • Supernatural forces used to

human advantage.

types of animism
Types of Animism:
  • Shamanism:
    • Believed that spirits communicate only with one person in the group, called the shaman.
    • Shaman can communicate with spirits and heal the sick, predict the future, and see events happening far away.
    • Belief in kinship

between humans

and animals or natural


    • Totem is considered sacred
    • Seen as helpful protectors

who watch over the group.

  • The belief in a god or gods.
    • Monotheism: belief on ONE god
      • EX: Judaism, Christianity, Islam.
    • Polytheism: belief in a number of gods.
      • EX: Hinduism
  • Based on idea that moral principles have a sacred quality.
    • Involves meditation and purity.
      • EX:Buddhism
organizational structures
Organizational Structures:

4 types:





  • Type of religious organization in which most people in the society are members by virtue of their birth.
    • EX: Islam in Iran
  • State church, connected with government, have power, do not recognize other religions
  • Well-established religious organization in which a substantial number of the population are members.
    • EX: Baptist, Presbyterian, etc….
  • Often tolerant, allow for converts
  • Relatively small religious organization that typically has split off from a denomination because of differences concerning


    • EX:Jehovah's Witnesses
  • Often claim exclusive religious truth and often are not tolerant
  • New religion whose beliefs and practices differ markedly from those of the society’s major religions.
    • Followers are usually disillusions by traditional religion and by life in general.
religion in american society
Religion in American Society:

Religious Affiliation

Religious Participation

Fundamentalist Christianity

identify any religious aspects of this 1 bill
Identify any religious aspects of this $1 bill:

FYI: The eye is called the Eye of Providence and the Latin motto ‘AnnuitCoeptis”’ means “He [God] has favored our undertakings”.

What can you conclude from these religious elements on U.S. currency?

That American society is predominantly and historically Christian.

religious affiliation
Religious Affiliation
  • 90% of Americans say they believe in God
  • 66%: affiliated with some religious organization.
  • Most people in U.S. are:
    • Christians, Muslims, Jewish

Turn to pg. 370

religious participation
Religious Participation:
  • About 34% attend religious services on a REGULAR basis.
  • Women, African Americans, and older citizens:
    • More likely to attend church.
  • Catholics more likely to attend compared to Protestants.
sociologists find it difficult to measure
Sociologists find it difficult to measure…
  • Religiosity:
    • The depth of people’s religious feelings and how they translate these feelings into behavior.
    • Sociologists believe that American society is becoming more secular
      • Religion is losing its influence in everyday life in the U.S.
what do you think2
What do you think??
  • Do you think that American society is becoming more secular??
fundamentalist christianity
Fundamentalist Christianity:
  • Increasing in U.S.
  • Share a commitment to bringing Jesus Christ into the lives of all nonbelievers.
  • Believe in “born again” concept.
homework due tomorrow
Homework due Tomorrow:

Pg. 372#1-4 (Understanding Main Ideas)

#1-5 (Thinking Critically)

Pg. 373


what s next
What’s Next???

Chapter 17:1

Collective Behavior