Download
journal entry n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Journal Entry PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Journal Entry

Journal Entry

133 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

Journal Entry

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Journal Entry • Open books to P. 116-117 to analyze picture and answer questions • What is distinctive about this rock formation? • What does the shape of this rock formation suggest about how it was formed. ( How do you think it was formed? • Where do you think this is?

  2. Rocks • What is a rock? • Rocks and Minerals are often confused. It is important to understand the difference. • A rock is: ________________________

  3. 3 types • Igneous- from cooling magma inside earth or cooling lava on surface of earth • Sedimentary- made of broken up bits of rocks (called sediment) which is eventually cemented together • Metamorphic- deformed rock

  4. Rock cycle • Shows the interrelationships among the three rock types • Earth as a system: the rock cycle • Magma • Crystallization • Igneous rock • Weathering, transportation, and deposition

  5. Rock cycle • Earth as a system: the rock cycle • Full cycle does not always take place due to "shortcuts" or interruptions • e.g., Sedimentary rock melts • e.g., Igneous rock is metamorphosed • e.g., Sedimentary rock is weathered • e.g., Metamorphic rock weathers

  6. Rock cycle • Earth as a system: the rock cycle • Sediment • Lithification • Sedimentary rock • Metamorphism • Metamorphic rock • Melting • Magma

  7. The rock cycle

  8. Magma • Crystallization- What is it? • Cooling magma creates Igneous rocks

  9. Check up Quiz • Can an igneous rock become another igneous rock? • How are the processes involved with the formation of Igneous and metamorphic rocks different? • Is there a beginning or end to this cycle?

  10. Igneous Rock Igneous rock exposed at earth’s surface is weathered, transported and deposited at a new location as sediment

  11. Sediment Lithification • Sediment- What is it? • Lithification- Sediment hardening creates Sedimentary rocks.

  12. Lithification

  13. Sedimentary Rock • As Sediment continues to be deposited and as layers become thicker the rock becomes deformed • Metamorphism- Solid state changes in sedimentary or igneous rocks. • Metamorphism of rock creates new class of rock called….

  14. Metamorphic Rock • As pressure and temperature increase, for various reasons (Subduction, Volcanism, Lithification), a rock may begin to melt • Recreates Magma

  15. Magma • Melting occurs and the whole process starts over.

  16. Link: **Rock Cycle Movie- (5 mins)** **Rock Cycle Animation**

  17. Igneous rocks • Form as magma cools and crystallizes • Rocks formed inside Earth are called plutonic or intrusive rocks • Rocks formed on the surface • Formed from lava (a material similar to magma, but without gas • Called volcanic or extrusive rocks

  18. Igneous rocks • Crystallization of magma • Ions are arranged into orderly patterns • Crystal size is determined by the rate of cooling • Slow rate forms large crystals • Fast rate forms microscopic crystals • Very fast rate forms glass

  19. Magma Crystallization

  20. Link: • Rock Formation animation • Crystal Growth

  21. Igneous rocks • Classification is based on the rock's texture and mineral constituents • Texture • Size and arrangement of crystals • Types • Fine-grained – fast rate of cooling • Coarse-grained – slow rate of cooling • Porphyritic (two crystal sizes) – two rates of cooling • Glassy – very fast rate of cooling

  22. Fine-grained igneous texture

  23. Course-grained igneous texture

  24. Porphyritic igneous texture

  25. Obsidian exhibits a glassy texture

  26. Igneous rocks • Classification is based on the rock's texture and mineral constituents • Mineral composition • Explained by Bowen's reaction series which shows the order of mineral crystallization • Influenced by crystal settling in the magma

  27. Igneous rocks • Naming igneous rocks • Granitic rocks • Composed almost entirely of light-colored silicates - quartz and feldspar • Also referred to as felsic: feldspar and silica (quartz) • High silica content (about 70 percent) • Common rock is granite

  28. Granite

  29. Igneous rocks • Naming igneous rocks • Basaltic rocks • Contain substantial dark silicate minerals and calcium-rich plagioclase feldspar • Also referred to as mafic: magnesium and ferrum (iron) • Common rock is basalt

  30. Basalt

  31. Igneous rocks • Naming igneous rocks • Other compositional groups • Andesitic (or intermediate) • Ultramafic

  32. Classification of igneous rocks

  33. Rock Quiz • Explain the Rock Cycle in your own words. Feel free to use an illustration • What are PIN’s? List 2 characteristics • What are VEX’s? List 2 characteristics • Explain how rocks get their textures.

  34. Sedimentary rocks • Form from sediment (weathered products) • About 75% of all rock outcrops on the continents • Used to reconstruct much of Earth's history • Clues to past environments • Provide information about sediment transport • Rocks often contain fossils

  35. Sedimentary rocks • Sedimentary rocks are produced through lithification • Loose sediments are transformed into solid rock • Lithification processes • Compaction • Cementation by • Calcite • Silica • Iron Oxide

  36. Sedimentary rocks • Features of sedimentary rocks • Strata, or beds (most characteristic) • Bedding planes separate strata • Fossils • Traces or remains of prehistoric life • Are the most important inclusions • Help determine past environments • Used as time indicators • Used for matching rocks from different places

  37. Sedimentary rocks • Economic importance • Coal • Petroleum and natural gas • Sources of iron and aluminum

  38. Sedimentary rocks • Classifying sedimentary rocks • Three groups based on the source of the material • Detrital rocks (CLASTIC) • Chemical • Organic

  39. Detrital/Clastic Sed. Rocks • Material is solid particles • Classified by particle size • Boulder, Gravel, Pebbles, Sand, Clay…. • Common rocks include • Shale (most abundant) • Sandstone • Conglomerate

  40. Classification of sedimentary rocks

  41. Shale with plant fossils

  42. Sandstone

  43. Conglomerate

  44. Chemical Sedimentary rocks • Many of these form when standing water evaporates, leaving dissolved minerals behind. • Unlike most other sedimentary rocks, chemical rocks are not made of pieces of sediment. Instead, they have mineral crystals made from elements that are dissolved in water.

  45. Chemical Sedimentary rocks • Chemical rocks • Common sedimentary rocks • Limestone – the most abundant chemical rock • Microcrystalline quartz (precipitated quartz) known as chert, flint, jasper, or agate • Evaporitessuch as rock salt or gypsum • Coal

  46. Formation • 1) Water becomes supersaturated • 2) Water dissolves which leaves less room for dissolved minerals • 3) Crystals begin to form, like halite- • Example: Salt Lake, UT • 4) Large crystal deposits

  47. Fossiliferous limestone

  48. Rock salt

  49. Limestone Caves