America Becomes an Imperial Power
1. Social Darwinist Thinking The Hierarchyof Race
1. Social Darwinist Thinking Take up the White Man’s burden- Send forth the best ye breed- Go bind your sons in exile To serve your captives’ need; To wait in heavy harness, On fluttered folk and wild- Your new-caught, sullen peoples, Half-devil and half-child. Rudyard Kipling 1899 The White Man’sBurden
2. Religious/Missionary Interests • Reverend Josiah Strong became a foundational figure in the Social Gospel Movement, that fused the ideas of Social Darwinism and American Protestantism. • His book, Our Country: Its Possible Future and Present Crisis 1885, sparked Amer. imperialism abroad. American Missionariesin China, 1905
3. Commercial/Business Interests Economic depression of 1893 necessitated expansion to further trade and rescue economy.
3. Commercial/Business Interests U. S. Foreign Investments: 1869-1908
3. Commercial/Business Interests American Foreign Trade:1870-1914
4. Military/Strategic Interests The fear the the U.S. was falling behind the rest of Europe in its turn of the century colonial binge.
4. Military/Strategic Interests Alfred T. Mahan The Influence of Sea Power on History: 1660-1783
5. Closing the American Frontier Frederick Jackson Turner’s Frontier Thesis at the 1893 World’s Columbian Expo in Chicago
“Seward’s Icebox”: 1867 $7.2 million dollars
“Seward’s Folly”: 1867 A “folly” for whom?
Hawaii: "Crossroads of the Pacific"
U. S. Missionaries in Hawaii Imiola Church – first built in the late 1820s “commerce follows the missionary” Jos. Strong
U. S. View of Hawaiians Hawaii becomes a U. S. Protectorate in 1849 by virtue of economic treaties.
Hawaiian Queen Liliuokalani Hawaii for the Hawaiians!
U. S. Business Interests In Hawaii • 1875 – Reciprocity Treaty • 1890 – McKinley Tariff • 1893 –Americanbusinessmen backed anuprising against Queen Liliuokalani. • Sanford Ballard Doleproclaims the Republic of Hawaii in 1894.
To The Victor Belongs the Spoils Hawaiian Annexation Ceremony, 1898 Not until McKinley was Pres.
British Imperialism in Caribbean • Gold is found on border of Venezuela & British Guiana in 1890s • President Cleveland saw solution to bimetal crisis • Congress pushed for a firm response to Britain.
Monroe Doctrine alive and well • Cleveland Sec. of State Richard Olney reasserts the Monroe Doctrine to GB & suggests arbitration • PM Lord Salisbury rejects Monroe Doctrine & offer • Cleveland all but threatens GB & they submit to arbitration.
Cuban Revolutionary Jose Marti • Exiled Cuban journalist who worked tirelessly to bring freedom and democracy to Cuba • Known as the “Apostle of Cuban Independence” • Marti rallied the support of Cuban émigré community in America to pressure the government to come to the aid of the Cubans.
“Yellow Journalism” & Jingoism Joseph Pulitzer Hearst to Frederick Remington:“You furnish the pictures, and I’ll furnish the war!” William Randolph Hearst
Theodore Roosevelt • Assistant Secretary of the Navy in the McKinley administration. • Imperialist and American nationalist. • Criticized PresidentMcKinley as having the backbone of a chocolate éclair! • Resigns his position to fight in Cuba. (not before sending Adm. Dewey from Hong Kong to Manilla Bay on Feb. 25th)
De Lôme Letter • Dupuy de Lôme, SpanishAmbassador to the U.S. • Criticized PresidentMcKinley as weak and abidder for the admirationof the crowd, besidesbeing a would-be politicianwho tries to leave a dooropen behind himself whilekeeping on good termswith the jingoes of hisparty.
Remember the Maineand to Hell with Spain! Funeral for Maine victims in Havana
The Spanish-American War (1898):“That Splendid Little War” How prepared was the US for war?
Emilio Aguinaldo • Leader of the FilipinoUprising. • July 4, 1946:Philippine independence
William H. Taft, 1stGov. General of the Philippines Great administrator.