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America Becomes a Colonial Power. Objective: To discover why the United States was interested in expansion in the late 19 th and early 20 th century. Why did America join the imperialist club at the end of the 19c?. Where in the World can we go??.

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a Colonial



Objective: To discover why the United States was interested in expansion in the late 19th and early 20th century.


Why did America

join the imperialist

club at the end

of the 19c?

what was our policy prior to this age
What was our policy prior to this age?
  • The Monroe Doctrine of 1823 defined United States foreign policy in the Americas for the rest of the nineteenth century and beyond.
  • The idea of manifest destiny gained popularity in the 1830s and 1840s
    • As people began settling the western territories, taking of the land from the Native American, many Americans came to believe that it was their nation's "manifest destiny" to possess all of the North American continent..
1 european imperialism
1.European Imperialism
  • Many European nations
  • had established colonies
  • in Africa
  • The major competitors
  • were Britain, France,
  • Belgium, Italy, Germany
  • and Portugal
  • Britain had invested in
  • Asia as well
  • “The sun never sets on the
  • British empire”

2. Commercial/Business Interests

  • Thirst for new markets
    • Overabundance of
    • goods in the U.S.
  • Albert Beveridge (Indiana
  • Senator) stated:
  • “Fate has written our policy
  • for us; The trade of the world
  • must and shall be ours.”
  • Exports totaled $1.5 billion
  • by 1900

U. S. Foreign Investments: 1869-1908


Commercial/Business Interests

American Foreign Trade:1870-1914


3. Military/Strategic Interests

Alfred T. Mahan  The Influence of Sea Power on History: 1660-1783


4. Social Darwinist Thinking

The White Man’sBurden

The Hierarchyof Race


4. Religious/Missionary Interests

American Missionariesin China, 1905

now it s your turn
Now it’s your turn

Rank in order of importance (most important to least important) the reasons for American expansion in the late 19th century and early 20th century

This is your opinion so be able to justify your reasons

Do you see a

Theme in the

First three??

  • Economic/Commercial
  • Military Interests
  • Competing with Europe
  • Social Darwinist
  • Closing of Frontier



of the



U. S. Missionaries in Hawaii

  • Original interest in the
  • islands was a stopping
  • point to China
  • Missionaries founded
  • schools there
  • Sugar merchants soon
  • followed

Imiola Church – first built in the late 1820s


U. S. View of Hawaiians

  • Hawaii becomes a U. S. Protectorate
  • in 1849 by virtue of economic treaties.
  • 1870’s Hawaiian Constitution is changed
  • by force by American business leaders
    • Voting rights only to wealthy landowners
  • Tariffs threatened the sugar plantations in the U.S. and would have to pay it so a call to annex the islands began

What is the impression of Hawaiians given in this cartoon?


U. S. Business Interests In Hawaii

  • 1875 – Reciprocity Treaty
  • 1890 – McKinley Tariff
  • 1893 –American businessmen backed an uprising against Queen Liliuokalani.
  • Sanford Ballard Dole proclaims the Republic of Hawaii in 1894.
revolution hawaiian style
1893 –American businessmen backed an uprising against Queen Liliuokalani.

Sanford Ballard Dole proclaims the Republic of Hawaii in 1894.

Revolution….Hawaiian Style

An empire is born


HawaiianQueen Liliuokalani

Hawaii for the Hawaiians!


To The Victor Belongs the Spoils

Hawaiian Annexation Ceremony, 1898


The Imperialist Taylor

  • American interest in Expansion
  • Interest in Cuba went as far back as 1854
  • In the 1880’s American investors began creating large sugar plantations even though Cuba was still under Spanish rule
  • There was no tariff on sugar from Cuba
  • so investment grew

Spanish Misrule in Cuba

  • Cuba Libre!
  • Jose Marti (poet) started a
  • revolution in 1895
  • He began to attack property
  • esp. American plantations
  • Marti wanted to provoke the
  • US into action to assist the
  • Cubans (Cuban Freedom)
  • Americans were split over
  • protecting its business
  • interests or helping the
  • Cuban people
  • Several events led to a change
  • in American opinion

“Yellow Journalism” & Jingoism

Joseph Pulitzer

Hearst to Frederick Remington:You furnish the pictures, and I’ll furnish the war!

William Randolph Hearst


De Lôme Letter

Dupuy de Lôme, SpanishAmbassador to the U.S.

Criticized PresidentMcKinley as weak and abidder for the admirationof the crowd, besidesbeing a would-be politicianwho tries to leave a dooropen behind himself whilekeeping on good termswith the jingoes of hisparty.


Theodore Roosevelt

Assistant Secretary of the Navy in the McKinley administration.

Imperialist and American nationalist.

Criticized PresidentMcKinley as having the backbone of a chocolate éclair!

Resigns his position to fight in Cuba.

tell me what you think
Tell me what you think

How is this an example of

Yellow Journalism?

What would this do to insight

Americans into wanting war?

Name two examples of Yellow

Journalism today.


Remember the Maineand to Hell with Spain!

Funeral for Maine victims in Havana

a brain teaser for a monday how fun
A Brain Teaser for a Monday …..How fun.

How does the U.S.’s Actions in Hawaii and Cuba relate to the causes for expansion??


The Spanish-American War (1898):“That Splendid Little War”

How prepared was the US for war?


The “Rough Riders”

A face on a mountain is born





Emilio Aguinaldo

Leader of the FilipinoUprising.

July 4, 1946:Philippine independence


The Treaty of Paris: 1898

Cuba was freed from Spanish rule.

Spain gave up Puerto Rico and the island ofGuam.

The U. S. paid Spain$20 mil. for thePhilippines.

The U. S. becomesan imperial power!


The American Anti-Imperialist League

Founded in 1899.

Mark Twain, Andrew Carnegie, WilliamJames, and WilliamJennings Bryan amongthe leaders.

Campaigned against the annexation of thePhilippines and otheracts of imperialism.


Cuban Independence?

Senator Orville Platt

Platt Amendment (1903)

1. Cuba was not to enter into any agreements with foreign powers that would endanger its independence.

2. The U.S. could intervene in Cuban affairs if necessary to maintain an efficient, independent govt.

3. Cuba must lease Guantanamo Bay to the U.S. for naval and coaling station.

4. Cuba must not build up an excessive public debt.


Puerto Rico: 1898

1900 - Foraker Act.

1901-1903  the Insular Cases.

1917- Citizenship

1947-vote for their

Own governor


Stereotypes of the Chinese Immigrant


By 1882 the Chinese were hated enough to be

banned from immigrating; the Chinese Exclusion

Act, initially only a ten year policy, was extended

indefinitely, and made permanent in 1902.

In 1943, China was an important ally of the

United States against Japan,

so the Chinese Exclusion Act was repealed;

however, a lasting impact remained.

The act was both cause and effect: it came

from decades of Chinese discrimination,

and initiated decades of Chinese exclusion.

Oriental [Chinese] Exclusion Act, 1882


The Open Door Policy

Secretary John Hay.

Give all nations equalaccess to trade in China.

Guaranteed that China would NOT be taken over by any one foreign power.


The Boxer Rebellion: 1900

The Peaceful Harmonious Fists.

“55 Days at Peking.”


The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine: 1905

Chronic wrongdoing… may in America, as elsewhere, ultimately require intervention by some civilized nation, and in the Western Hemisphere the adherence of the United States to the Monroe Doctrine may force the United States, however reluctantly, in flagrant cases of such wrongdoing or impotence, to the exercise of an international police power .


Panama: The King’s Crown

  • A canal would reduce travel time
  • A linking of the Atlantic and Pacific
  • Oceans
  • British, French and US were interested in building the canal
  • Original interest was in Nicaragua
  • because it was at sea level and required no locks
  • French had already started construction in Panama

Panama Canal

TR in Panama(Construction begins in 1904)


Treaty of Portsmouth: 1905

Nobel Peace Prize for Teddy


Taft’s “Dollar Diplomacy”

Improve financialopportunities for American businesses.

Use private capital tofurther U. S. interestsoverseas.

Therefore, the U.S. should create stability and order abroad that would best promote America’s commercial interests.


Wilson’s “Moral Diplomacy”

The U. S. shouldbe the conscienceof the world.

Spread democracy.

Promote peace.

Condemn colonialism.


The Mexican Revolution: 1910s

Victoriano Huerta seizes control of Mexico and puts Madero in prison where he was murdered.

Many rebels fought against Huerta.

The U.S. also got involved by occupying Veracruz and Huerta fled the country.

Eventually Carranza would gain power in Mexico.


The Mexican Revolution: 1910s

Emiliano Zapata

Pancho Villa

Venustiano Carranza

Porfirio Diaz

Francisco I Madero


Searching for Banditos

General John J. Pershing with PanchoVilla in 1914.