America Becomes a Colonial Power
Objective: To discover why the United States was interested in expansion in the late 19th and early 20th century.
Why did America join the imperialist club at the end of the 19c?
What was our policy prior to this age? • The Monroe Doctrine of 1823 defined United States foreign policy in the Americas for the rest of the nineteenth century and beyond. • The idea of manifest destiny gained popularity in the 1830s and 1840s • As people began settling the western territories, taking of the land from the Native American, many Americans came to believe that it was their nation's "manifest destiny" to possess all of the North American continent..
1.European Imperialism • Many European nations • had established colonies • in Africa • The major competitors • were Britain, France, • Belgium, Italy, Germany • and Portugal • Britain had invested in • Asia as well • “The sun never sets on the • British empire”
2. Commercial/Business Interests • Thirst for new markets • Overabundance of • goods in the U.S. • Albert Beveridge (Indiana • Senator) stated: • “Fate has written our policy • for us; The trade of the world • must and shall be ours.” • Exports totaled $1.5 billion • by 1900 U. S. Foreign Investments: 1869-1908
Commercial/Business Interests American Foreign Trade:1870-1914
3. Military/Strategic Interests Alfred T. Mahan The Influence of Sea Power on History: 1660-1783
4. Social Darwinist Thinking The White Man’sBurden The Hierarchyof Race
4. Religious/Missionary Interests American Missionariesin China, 1905
Now it’s your turn Rank in order of importance (most important to least important) the reasons for American expansion in the late 19th century and early 20th century This is your opinion so be able to justify your reasons Do you see a Theme in the First three?? • Economic/Commercial • Military Interests • Competing with Europe • Social Darwinist • Closing of Frontier
“Seward’s Folly”: 1867 $7.2 million
Hawaii: "Crossroads of the Pacific"
U. S. Missionaries in Hawaii • Original interest in the • islands was a stopping • point to China • Missionaries founded • schools there • Sugar merchants soon • followed Imiola Church – first built in the late 1820s
U. S. View of Hawaiians • Hawaii becomes a U. S. Protectorate • in 1849 by virtue of economic treaties. • 1870’s Hawaiian Constitution is changed • by force by American business leaders • Voting rights only to wealthy landowners • Tariffs threatened the sugar plantations in the U.S. and would have to pay it so a call to annex the islands began What is the impression of Hawaiians given in this cartoon?
U. S. Business Interests In Hawaii • 1875 – Reciprocity Treaty • 1890 – McKinley Tariff • 1893 –American businessmen backed an uprising against Queen Liliuokalani. • Sanford Ballard Dole proclaims the Republic of Hawaii in 1894.
1893 –American businessmen backed an uprising against Queen Liliuokalani. Sanford Ballard Dole proclaims the Republic of Hawaii in 1894. Revolution….Hawaiian Style An empire is born
HawaiianQueen Liliuokalani Hawaii for the Hawaiians!
To The Victor Belongs the Spoils Hawaiian Annexation Ceremony, 1898
The Imperialist Taylor • American interest in Expansion • Interest in Cuba went as far back as 1854 • In the 1880’s American investors began creating large sugar plantations even though Cuba was still under Spanish rule • There was no tariff on sugar from Cuba • so investment grew
Spanish Misrule in Cuba • Cuba Libre! • Jose Marti (poet) started a • revolution in 1895 • He began to attack property • esp. American plantations • Marti wanted to provoke the • US into action to assist the • Cubans (Cuban Freedom) • Americans were split over • protecting its business • interests or helping the • Cuban people • Several events led to a change • in American opinion
“Yellow Journalism” & Jingoism Joseph Pulitzer Hearst to Frederick Remington:You furnish the pictures, and I’ll furnish the war! William Randolph Hearst
De Lôme Letter Dupuy de Lôme, SpanishAmbassador to the U.S. Criticized PresidentMcKinley as weak and abidder for the admirationof the crowd, besidesbeing a would-be politicianwho tries to leave a dooropen behind himself whilekeeping on good termswith the jingoes of hisparty.
Theodore Roosevelt Assistant Secretary of the Navy in the McKinley administration. Imperialist and American nationalist. Criticized PresidentMcKinley as having the backbone of a chocolate éclair! Resigns his position to fight in Cuba.
Tell me what you think How is this an example of Yellow Journalism? What would this do to insight Americans into wanting war? Name two examples of Yellow Journalism today.
Remember the Maineand to Hell with Spain! Funeral for Maine victims in Havana
A Brain Teaser for a Monday …..How fun. How does the U.S.’s Actions in Hawaii and Cuba relate to the causes for expansion??
The Spanish-American War (1898):“That Splendid Little War” How prepared was the US for war?
The “Rough Riders” A face on a mountain is born
Emilio Aguinaldo Leader of the FilipinoUprising. July 4, 1946:Philippine independence
William H. Taft, 1stGov.-General of the Philippines Great administrator.
The Treaty of Paris: 1898 Cuba was freed from Spanish rule. Spain gave up Puerto Rico and the island ofGuam. The U. S. paid Spain$20 mil. for thePhilippines. The U. S. becomesan imperial power!
The American Anti-Imperialist League Founded in 1899. Mark Twain, Andrew Carnegie, WilliamJames, and WilliamJennings Bryan amongthe leaders. Campaigned against the annexation of thePhilippines and otheracts of imperialism.
Cuban Independence? Senator Orville Platt Platt Amendment (1903) 1. Cuba was not to enter into any agreements with foreign powers that would endanger its independence. 2. The U.S. could intervene in Cuban affairs if necessary to maintain an efficient, independent govt. 3. Cuba must lease Guantanamo Bay to the U.S. for naval and coaling station. 4. Cuba must not build up an excessive public debt.
Puerto Rico: 1898 1900 - Foraker Act. 1901-1903 the Insular Cases. 1917- Citizenship 1947-vote for their Own governor
Stereotypes of the Chinese Immigrant . By 1882 the Chinese were hated enough to be banned from immigrating; the Chinese Exclusion Act, initially only a ten year policy, was extended indefinitely, and made permanent in 1902. In 1943, China was an important ally of the United States against Japan, so the Chinese Exclusion Act was repealed; however, a lasting impact remained. The act was both cause and effect: it came from decades of Chinese discrimination, and initiated decades of Chinese exclusion. Oriental [Chinese] Exclusion Act, 1882
The Open Door Policy Secretary John Hay. Give all nations equalaccess to trade in China. Guaranteed that China would NOT be taken over by any one foreign power.