Social Class and Residential Architecture in Medieval Europe - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Social Class and Residential Architecture in Medieval Europe
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Social Class and Residential Architecture in Medieval Europe

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  1. Social Class and Residential Architecture in Medieval Europe

  2. I. Medieval urbanism: cities after the fall of the Roman Empire   A. Main lines of city morphology (form) in Europe: 1. the old rural pattern 1. Open field village: Wharram Percy (East Anglia), England

  3. I. A. 2. three basic patterns of the medieval town 3. Continuous occupation of Roman gridded colony New village springs up near a castle or monastery New town deliberately founded by a patron Montaubon (bastide), France Florence, Italy Fosdinovo, Italy

  4. I. B. A partiality for regular, urban-based geometric plans in the Middle Ages: the pitfalls of thinking that similar forms have similar significance 1. In spite of similar form, how were medieval bastides in France unlike Roman towns? 6. 8. Roman colony Medieval bastide Law of the Indies plan Montaubon, France Timgad, Algeria New Orleans, LA

  5. I. C. Purposefulness of the medieval organic towns, a rural, topography-based “plan” 1. Influence of topography on form: why did faubourg type towns often conform to topography? 4. Faubourg in German-speaking lands Faubourg in England Friesbach, Austria, 12th century Farnham, England, 12th century

  6. I. C. 1. Friesbach, Austria, 12th century

  7. I. C. 2. How did the influence of economic considerations shape informal medieval town plans? Siena, Italy (free commune)

  8. I. C. 3. How could intelligent decisions based on accidents of site become part of the aesthetic identity of an organic town? Siena, Italy – view over town square (the Campo)

  9. II. Middle Ages in Northern Europe: the culture of the hall Great Hall at Oakham Castle, Oakham, England, 1180-90

  10. II. A. Functions: What functions did a great hall serve? Remains of a byre in Ezinge, Netherlands 2nd cen. bc Halls and the Great Hall of the Saxon royal court at Yeavering, England, 7th - 9th cen.

  11. II. A. Origins of the rural North European timber hall 1. Vernacular Saxon royal hall at Cheddar (c. 1100), England Halls and the Great Hall of the Saxon royal court at Yeavering, England, 7th - 9th cen.

  12. II. A. 2. Roman basilicas Constantine’s Aula or Basilica Trier, Germany, c. 300 Great Hall at Oakham

  13. II. C. Evolution of a northern architecture for the elite: making the hall an architecture of power Great Hall at Oakham Castle bailey (grounds) earthen banks w/ stone walls

  14. II. C. Feudal context of the substantial great halls: why did great halls become more monumental beginning in the 11th century? “Here below, some pray, others fight, still others work.” (11th century, Bishop Adalbero of Laon) “From the beginning, mankind has been divided into three parts, among men of prayer, farmers, and men of war.” (11th century, Bishop Gerard of Cambrai)

  15. II. C. 2. How were architectural languages combined to distinguish great halls with pretensions from other halls? Great Hall at Oakham

  16. II. C. 2. Great Hall at Oakham

  17. II. C. 2. Great Hall at Oakham Figure playing a viol

  18. III. Signature architecture of the feudal aristocracy: The keep ➝ an un-Roman vertical status dwelling Keep (donjon) of Loches Castle, Loches, France, 1030s

  19. III. Keep of Durham Castle Tower of London, 1078 Royal residence of William the Conqueror

  20. III. A. Origin of the keep in north European motte-and-bailey earthwork fortifications motte (mound) and bailey (enclosed grounds) wood hall → future masonry keep great hall and other buildings Remains of motte-and-bailey castle at Pleshey, England

  21. III. B. Rural landscape setting: Why would the idea to live in a vertical house not have occurred to the elite Roman? Loches Castle

  22. III. C. Stacking of halls seen in Bayeux Tapestry, 11th cen. Hall at Oakham Castle Stacking of halls seen in Bayeux Tapestry, 11th cen. a keep

  23. III. C. Architectural program of the tower, keep, or donjon Loches Castle

  24. III. C. 1. keep as stacked feudal halls for feasting, entertaining, sleeping, praying 4 floor levels inside the keep at Loches chambers Plan of the keep at Loches chambers great hall armory

  25. III. C. 1. Loches Castle The great hall (2nd floor)

  26. III. C. 1. Loches Castle The chapel in the small keep (3rd floor chamber level)

  27. III. C. 1.

  28. III. C. 2. thick walls (idea found also in Romanesque churches) Loches Castle Loches Castle Dwarf gallery at Durham Cathedral

  29. III. D. Aesthetics: non-defensive statements made by the castle and keep Loches Castle

  30. III. D. 1. Its relationship to the grandeur of Romanesque church design Engaged shafts, passageways in walls, and ashlar masonry: already appear at Loches before they become widespread in church architecture Engaged shafts at Loches Castle Romanesque Speyer Cathedral

  31. III. D. 1. More complex massing and/or exterior articulation Tower of London, 1078 Keep of Castle Rising, England, 1140

  32. III. D. 1. Evolution away from the rectangular hall toward more visually flashy keeps Étampes donjon, Étampes, France, 1130-50