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Colonial Outposts in North America

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  1. Colonial Outposts in North America • Columbian Exchange • Spain’s Northern Frontier • New France • English settlements

  2. Part I. New World Isolation Disease & History Disease Pools “Axis” of Power Old World Neolithic Revolutions Disease gradients

  3. Columbian Exchange • Socio-biological • Initiation and sustained contact • Eurasia, Africa, Americas • Globalization,16th century • Unequal exchanges • World system

  4. Pathogens and Animals • Key factor of inequality • Africans/Eurasians had domesticated animals • Americas did not • Humans and animals exchange disease • Mutations • Disease experience

  5. Smallpox Influenza Tuberculosis Measles Whooping Cough Cowpox Swine flu/bird flu Bovine Tuberculosis Cattle (rinderpest) Similar disease in pigs, dogs Similar Diseases: Humans and Animals

  6. God, Gods and Disease • Indians and Europeans interpreted epidemics as divine intervention • Indigenous perspectives—evidence of angry Gods and divine character of Europeans • Evidence of God punishing the wicked

  7. Environment, Diet, Lifestyle • Domesticated animals • Horses, donkeys, cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, chickens • Shift: Intense agriculture to grazing lands • Herds multiply unchecked • Destroying vegetation • Animal waste

  8. Corn (Maize) • Single most important contribution to world diet • Did not revolutionize European diet • Widely cultivated in Asia and Africa • Animal fodder in Europe • Population explosions (Old World)

  9. Chocolate in Europe • High demand in Europe • Sweetened • Adding sugar, cinnamon, cloves, vanilla, etc. • Hot chocolate

  10. Part II: Spain’s Northern Frontier in America • Contrast with central and southern Mexico • 1540-1680 • Non-agricultural productive regions • Smaller-scale • Self-sufficient societies • Annual mobility • No native elite

  11. Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca • Part of failed Panfilo de Narvaez expedition to Florida (1528) • “going native” • Texas Indians • Survived, published account of northern expedition • Rumors: great populations, rich cities

  12. Oñate & New Mexico • 1595, Juan de Oñate, entrada contract to explore north • Settlement of New Mexico • Victory against pueblos • Rio Grande Indians • Advanced civilization • Not like Central Mexico • 1610 Santa Fe est.

  13. Pueblo Indians • Rio Grande settlements date back thousands of years • Cultivated squash, corn, beans • Pueblo: Spanish term • Religious rituals tied to rain • Religious conversion

  14. Popé • Born around 1630 • Came of age during conquest of Pueblos • Practiced traditional religion outside Santa Fe • Reacted against conversion efforts • 1675,whipped for sorcery • Public executions • Document # 4, Voices of Freedom

  15. Part III: New France • St. Lawrence River, 1535-1615 • Northwest Passage • Jacques Cartier (1535) • Samuel de Champlain (1608-1635) • Quebec (1608) • Hurons • Beaver pelts

  16. The Fur Trade • Dependency Theory • (trade: metal/iron, fish hooks, cooking utensils) • Cultural suicide • Mutuality Theory • Native benefits • Choice, agency

  17. The French Crescent • Quebec to New Orleans • Water-ways • Montreal (1642) • Great Lakes • St. Louis • Detroit • Mississippi River • engagés • Métis population • Coureur de bois • Ecological catastrophe • Retarded economy • Transparency • Take-Home Quiz

  18. Part IV. English Settlement in Colonial North America • Virginia & Chesapeake Society • Massachusetts Bay (New England) • The Middle Colonies (Pennsylvania, New York) • Charter, Royal, Proprietary colonial settlements

  19. The New World: Nightmare in Jamestown (National Geographic, 2005) • James River • Chesapeake Bay • Disease (malaria, typhoid, dysentery) • Plague • Violence • Powhatan • John Smith • Pocahontas • “starving time” • Jamestown Fort • Spanish “spies” • tobacco