Collins type 1 writing • What do you know about imperialism? • (remember if you don’t know anything, then ask a question to get credit)
What is imperialism • Imperialism= when a country takes over another country.
Motives for imperialism • Reason #1= Territory • -European countries are competing against each other to see who can gain the most land from around the world. More land=more power
Reason #2 • Money • -You make money off another country by stealing their treasure and making the conquered people pay taxes.
Reason #3 • Resources ( coal, iron, oil, timber, rubber, etc.) • -Most countries don’t have all the resources that they need. You can trade for what you need or steal it. • These resources were needed to make things in the factories.
Reason #4 • Markets • The European countries and the U.S. would make things in their factories. • Then, you need people to sell the finished products to. So, you conquer them, steal their resources, make something out of it and sell it back to them!
Reason #5 • Religion • -The European countries (Christian) believed they were helping countries by taking them over. They would conquer and then convert them and save primitive people from around the world from going to Hell.
Connection between the Industrial Revolution and Imperialism? The Industrial rev. made countries stronger. How? • They had advanced weapons Example: rifles, modern ships, machine guns 2. Industrialized countries had more $$$. -This meant they could spend more money on creating bigger armies and making more weapons. 3. Better transportation- trains and modern ships move troops faster and can carry more supplies.
Last Samurai • http://youtu.be/XCtuZ-fDL2E • Zulu: • http://youtu.be/1csr0dxalpI
Imperialistic countries • It is all the countries who went through the Industrial revolution in the 1800s, who were the bullies. • 1. Great Britain (most imperialistic) • 2. France (2nd most land) • 3. Germany • 4. Italy • 5. Spain • 6. Portugal • 7. Belgium • 8. Netherlands • 9. Russia • 10. United States
Who were the victims? • 1. African countries • 2. South-east Asian countries • 3. India • 4. China • 5. Japan
Types of Imperialism • 1. old imperialism- a country sets up a trade post/fort along the coast of a country, but doesn’t take it over • 2. new imperialism (what we are studying)- a country completely takes over another country.
Types of Rule • Indirect rule • -When a European country takes over another country and keeps the conquered government in charge. • -the conquered government is like a puppet. • -this type of rule is cheaper and there is less resistance.
Type of rule#2 • Direct rule • -The European country takes over a country and places a European person in charge.
Different Perspectives • If your country was taken over by one of the European countries in the 1800s… • A. List 2 positives 1. modernized/technology 2. expanded culture (learned English) B. List 2 negatives 1. lost political independence 2. treated as a 2nd class citizen 3. resources stolen
South-East Asia • The British and French took over the majority of this part of the world. • Britain= controlled Burma (to protect India colony) • France=controlled French Indochina= Vietnam,Laos, and Cambodia • Independent country= Thailand= buffer zone between French and British colonies.
Africa • Slavery became illegal by the 1800s. So, European countries started trading manufactured goods in exchange for a raw materials. • Because of the huge amount of $$$ to be made, European countries carved up Africa, which became known as the “scramble for Africa.”
Who was involved in the scramble? • Great Britain, France, Germany, Belgium, Italy, Spain, and Portugal • Berlin Conference: European countries worked together and split up East Africa. • The European countries drew the borders like we see today. (look at map of Africa to right)
Independent African countries • 1. Liberia- It was set up as a colony for former slaves from the U.S. After civil war, African Americans had option to stay in the U.S., or go live in Liberia. • 2. Ethiopia- They defeated the Italian army and became the only African country to ever defeat a European country in a war.
China • Prior to the 1800s, China had always been a very powerful country. In fact, they were the most powerful country in the world • The problem is that China didn’t go through the Industrial Revolution like the European countries. • During the 1800s, the Qing dynasty was in charge.
The Problem • There was an unequal trade balance. Great Britain was buying more products from China than what China was buying from Great Britain. • This meant the British were losing money and forced to trade gold for products like tea.
Solution to the trade imbalance? • The British begin to have their India colony grow opium and other drugs. The British begin selling the drug to the Chinese. • The Chinese people got addicted and then were trading gold/silver for drugs. The Qing dynasty didn’t like this and told the British to stop. • The British refused to stop and war resulted.
The Opium War • The British win this war because of their technological superiority. • Prior to the war, European countries only could enter the Chinese city of Canton for trading. • The Treaty of Nanjing ended the war. • 1. 5 coastal cities were opened for trade. • 2.tariffs lowered on British goods. • 3. China had to pay the costs of the Opium war.
Definitions • 1. Tariff- tax on imports/exports • 2. Extraterritoriality- Europeans follow their own laws even when they live in native countries.
Conquest of China • It wasn’t just the British who were involved with China. • Who was involved? • Russia: took land in Northern China • Japan: took Taiwan and Korea • Germany: took the Shandong peninsula • Great Britain and France: They took land as well.
Why were many countries involved? • The United States feared that all of China would be taken over. • John Hay (U.S. secretary of state)issued “the open door policy.” • Every country could trade with China • By 1911, the Qing dynasty collapsed and went into a civil war for the next 20 years.
Japan • Japan is made up of 4 islands and it has a high population density. • It was culturally isolated. They didn’t trade with anyone and resisted opening for trade. • Japan was on the way to China. If you accidentally went to Japan or your ship sunk and you washed ashore, then you were arrested.
In 1853, Commodore Matthew Perry led 4 U.S. ships into Tokyo Bay with a note from the president. • The note basically told Japans emperor to begin trading or else. • Japan could see what was happening to nearby China. What was happening?
Japanese options • 1. Stick to old samurai ways • 2. To modernize • The Japanese went with option 2 before it was too late.
Studying • Japan sent representatives to study all the best features from the best countries in the world and would copy them. • Example: • Germany: copied their army and constitution • United States: copied education system • Great Britain: navy
Japan modernized • By the late 1800s, Japan had modernized and they wanted to become imperialistic like the European countries. • 1894-Japan defeats China in war • 1904-Japan defeats Russia in war • 1910-Japan took Korea • -Japan was now the strongest Asian country and had become a world power.
India • During the 1800s, the British had been increasing their presence in India. • In 1857, “The Great Rebellion” or the First War of Independence occurred. There were rumors that the British were greasing their bullets in cow and pig fat. • Why is this a problem?
Who won the war? • 40,000 British troops defeated 230,000 Indian troops. • This British win because of their technological superiority. • British were masters of creating civil wars. • Hindus and Muslims fight each other instead of against the British.
All of India was taken over by the British. • India will be the “jewel” of the British empire • The India colony included India, Pakistan, and Afghanistan.