Causes of Imperialism Economic Motives The Industrial Revolution created an insatiable demand for raw materials and new markets. Nationalism European nations wanted to demonstrate their power and prestige to the world. Balance of Power European nations were forced to acquire new colonies to achieve a balance with their neighbors and competitors. White Man's Burden The Europeans’ sense of superiority made them feel obligated to “civilize the heathen savages” they encountered.
AFRICA Competition for colonies by European countries in Africa was intense. By the late 1800, most of Africa was ruled by European countries
SUEZ CANAL Connects Mediterranean and Red Seas. Built by the French in 1869. Allowed ships to cut thousands of miles off the trip from Europe to India
Britain wanted control to get to India and Australia faster. Bought up stock in the company and took over countries by the Red Sea.
Berlin Conference To prevent fighting over Africa, representatives from Europe met to lay down rules for competition. No African ruler attended. Africa was divided into colonies by European countries Only two countries remained independent – Ethiopia and Liberia.
GREAT BRITAIN The largest empire the world had known: 100 times larger than Britain ¼ of the world’s land and population
INDIA Under British control from the 1700s The cornerstone of the British Empire, India provided raw materials (cotton), labor, and a market for goods to be sold.
INDIA The Good: • United India under one authority/law • Made English official language for education • Outlawed suttee (widow suicide) • Improved medical, build railroad • Telegraph and irrigation
INDIA The Bad: • Population increased while food production decreased, causing a decrease in the standard of living. • Discrimination in their own country • Indian hand-woven cloth wasn’t as cheap as British cloth –caused unemployment (the people turned to agriculture)
Sepoy Revolt Why? Indian soldiers were offended by the beef/pork fat used to seal bullets (Muslims forbidden to eat pork, Hindus forbidden to eat beef) Results: Rebelled against British leadership British easily defeated the Indians
Indian Nationalism By the early 1900s, many Indians were calling for self-government. India becomes independent in 1947.
CHINA Manchu Dynasty in control Chinese merchants produced what China needed – Chinese considered European products inferior Europeans allowed to trade at only one port
OPIUM WARS Britain smuggled opium (habit-forming narcotic) into China The Chinese became addicted, needing more and more. This weakened the Chinese government, leading to the Opium Wars (China vs. Britain)
Opium War (1839) Fought mostly at sea. Britain won and legalized opium (humiliating for Chinese)
Treaty of Nanjing • Opened many ports to Great Britain • Gave lease of Hong Kong until 1997 • Extraterritoriality allowed the British to be subject only under British law and courts • Humiliated the Chinese
China Divided country into regions where foreigners would control the economic interest
OPEN DOOR POLICY United States feared being left out and proposed a policy that would allow competition on equal terms. This policy kept China from being carved up into colonies like Africa
BOXER REBELLION The Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists (nicknamed Boxers by English) Chinese who opposed westerners Destroyed railroads, burned bridges, and killed Europeans Although this rebellion failed, it was a clear message that the Chinese wanted to get rid of foreigners
JAPAN Commodore Matthew Perry (U.S.) forced Japan to open ports for trade Treaty of Kanagawa Opened Japanese ports to U.S. and gave extraterritorial rights to Americans
Japan Westernized (Meiji Restoration) • Japan became the first industrialized nation in Asia • Studied western powers and adopted only what they thought good for Japan • Military strengthened (army based on German model, navy based on Britain model) • Compulsory education implemented, wiping out illiteracy • Government made new loans • Judicial system based on the west
Japan Became Imperialistic Lacked raw materials and food Won trading rights in Korea from China War with Russia in 1905 over Manchuria (rich in resources) Aggression shocked west – demanded respect
LATIN AMERICA Success of Am. and Fr. Revolutions, the Enlightenment, and nationalism led much of Latin America to demand independence Napoleon’s conquest of Spain led Spanish colonies to rebel: Argentina and Chile win independence under Jose San Martín Venezuela, Colombia, Panama, Ecuador and Peru win independence under Simon Bolivar
Brazil gains independence from Portugal - 1822 Central American countries declare independence – 1823 1823 President James Monroe issues the Monroe Doctrine saying the U.S. would not allow the Americas to be divided into colonies
PANAMA CANAL U.S. encouraged Panama to revolt against Colombia. Panama won – leased U.S. land for a canal. In 1914, the Panama Canal opened, connecting the Atlantic and Pacific.