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Tropical Convection and UTLS Transport. Jean-Pierre Pommereau CNRS Service d’Aéronomie, Verrières le Buisson, France. 0.4 km/month. Corti et al 2005. Troposphere-Stratosphere Transport.

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slide1

Tropical Convection and UTLS Transport

Jean-Pierre Pommereau

CNRS Service d’Aéronomie,

Verrières le Buisson, France

slide2

0.4 km/month

Corti et al 2005

Troposphere-Stratosphere Transport

0-14 km Fast (hours) convective transport up to Layer of Neutral Buoyancy (LNB), the base of Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL)

14-20 km Current understanding: Slow (6 months) ascent by radiative heating

Question: contribution offast (hours) cumulonimbus overshooting ?

slide3

?

STRATOSPHERE

Top TTL

20 km

TTL

16-17 km

C PT

Bottom TTL

14 km

1O km

TROPOSPHERE

Temperature

O km

IMPACT OF OVERSHOOTING UPDRAFTS ?

How high ? Where ? How frequent ? How important at global scale?

slide4

Where and When ?

SH Summer

Hibiscus / Troccinox Feb 2004 and 2005

SCOUT Darwin Dec 2005

NH Summer

SCOUT-AMMA Aug 2006, Aug 2008

TRMM Radar: Frequency of Overshooting Precipitation Features (OPFs) at altitude > 14 km

Parts per thousand

(Liu and Zipser, 2005)

slide5

TRMM Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS)

SH Summer

Hibiscus / Troccinox Feb 2004 and 2005

SCOUT Darwin Dec 2005

NH Summer

SCOUT-AMMA Aug 2006, Aug 2008

Lightning where vertical velocity is the fastest

slide6

WHERE ?

Max Height

Lightning

Yearly average percentage of TRMM extreme events in each 2-degree box

Zipser et al. 2006

slide7

How studying TST with balloons ?

1. Short flights as close as possible from storms

slide8

Rubber sounding balloons

SCOUT-AMMA

Niamey, Aug 2006, Aug 2008

1200 g balloons

Payload <5kg

slide9

Plastic sounding balloons

Hibiscus, Brazil Feb 2004

SCOUT -AMMA Niamey Aug 2006, Aug 2008

500-5000 m3

Payload 5-30 kg

slide10

Small Zodiac ZL & SF balloons

Hibiscus, Brazil, Feb 2004

Scout-Amma

Aug 2006

10 000 - 12 000 m3

Several instruments

Total up to 120 kg

Light telemetry/ command

slide11

FIGHT STRATEGY

As close as possible from fast developping storms (few hours)

strong diurnal variation, unpredicted by NWP meteorological models

Now forecast only (GOES or MSG pictures, Radars in Bauru and Niamey)

High flexibility required : 2-3 hours max between decision and flight

MSG picture