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Physical Assessment. An Overview. J. Carley RN, MSN, MA, CNE Fall, 2009. Plan of the Day 9/1/2009. √ Introduction to Block 2 √ Introduction to Health Assessment (~0800-0900) √ Interviewing / Documentation (~0900-1000) √ Review of Systems (~1000-1100) Lunch (1200-1500)

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Physical assessment

Physical Assessment

An Overview

J. Carley RN, MSN, MA, CNE

Fall, 2009

Plan of the day 9 1 2009
Plan of the Day 9/1/2009

√ Introduction to Block 2

√ Introduction to Health Assessment (~0800-0900)

√ Interviewing / Documentation (~0900-1000)

√ Review of Systems (~1000-1100)



√ Hand washing

√ Review of Systems / Health History Interview with partner (p. 33-40 in Jarvis Student Laboratory Manual)

***Complete & Turn it in! Before You Leave Today

We re late let s start report
We’re Late !Let’s Start Report….

“New Admission”

Today’s Census = 10

[Staffing: 1 RN (You!) , 1 LVN (O), 1 CNA]

RN’s Comment: “Oh, *&%$#!!!”

You ll see the patients on the previous page in adult health ii

But First, Let’s

Introduce Some

Background, or


You’ll see the patients on the previous page in Adult Health II……………………………..

Content and Process

of This Course !



Nursing Process



Outcome Identification




List of NANDA Nursing Diagnoses

Nursing process
Nursing Process

  • A Closer Look


Collect Data:

√ Review the Clinical Record

√ Interview

√ Health History

√ Physical Examination

√ Functional Assessment

√ Consultation

* Review of the Literature

(--Evidence Based Practice)


*Interpret Data:

√ Identify clusters / cues

√ Make Inferences

* Validate Inferences

* Compare clusters of cues w/ definition,

defining characteristics

* Identify Related Factors

* Document the nursing diagnosis

Outcome Identification

--Identify expected outcomes

--INDIVIDUALIZE to the person

--Realistic and MEASURABLE

--Include a TIME FRAME


--Establish priorities

--Develop Outcomes

--Set time frames for outcomes

--Identify Interventions

--Document Plan of Care

“The Nursing Care Plan”


--Review planned interventions

--Schedule & coordinate patient’s care

--Collaborate w/ other team members--Supervise implementation by delegation

--Counsel patient & family

--Involve the patient in their care

--Referrals as need for continuity of care

--Document care provided


--Refer to the outcomes you established

--Evaluate individual’s condition: compare actual outcomes to expected outcomes

--Summarize results of the evaluation--If expected outcomes not met, identify reasons

--Modify Plan of Care as necessary

--Document Evaluation of Outcomes, and changes (if any) in Plan of Care

Nursing Process



Outcome Identification






The Interview


Types of Data

Subjective Data

Objective Data

Objective data
Objective Data:

  • Blood Pressure = 142 / 98 mm Hg

  • Weight = 158 lbs (= 71.8 kg)

  • Oral Intake = 2400 mL / 24 hours

  • Urinary Output = 250 mL / 24 hours

  • Imbalance Between Oral Intake & Urinary Output (above)

“Stuff You can Actually See and Measure”

The Interview


“Uh Huh.”

“I see…”

The interview

Subjective Data

The Interview

  • During the interview, it is a chance for the patient to tell you how he or she PERCEIVES what is going on—what they THINK (or want you to think) their health state is…

U2: Your Blue Room

Learning Games

Part 2 interviewing documentation

Part 2:Interviewing & Documentation

The Nursing Interview

The nursing process
“The Nursing Process…”

  • Mnemonic: “ADOPIE” = “The Nursing Process”








Establish rapport
Establish Rapport

  • Get organized

  • Do not rely on memory

  • Plan enough time

  • Ensure privacy

  • Get focused

  • Be calm, confident, warm, and helpful

Begin the interview
Begin the Interview

  • Give your name and position

  • Verify the client’s name

  • Briefly explain your purpose

How to listen
How to listen

  • Be an empathetic listener

  • Use short supplementary phrases

  • Listen for feelings as well as words

  • Let the person know when you see body language that conflicts with what they say

  • Be patient if the patient has a memory block

  • Avoid the impulse to interrupt

  • Allow for pauses

How to ask questions
How to ask Questions

  • Ask about the main problem first = chief complaint

  • Focus your questions to gain specific information about the signs and symptoms

  • Don’t lead the witness

  • Restate the other person’s words to clarify

  • Use open-ended questions

  • Avoid closed –ended, yes or no questions

How to terminate the interview
How to terminate the interview

  • If the session has been long, give a warning

  • As the person to summarize their primary concerns

  • Ask if there are other areas to be discussed

  • Offer yourself as a resource

  • Explain routines and provide information about who does what

  • End on a positive note

Charting documentation
Charting & Documentation

  • If it isn’t written, then it wasn’t done

  • Chart at the time it occurs – if possible

  • Follow facility guidelines

  • Is the information clear and logical?

  • Is it true?

  • Is it non - judgmental?

  • Record all abnormals and normals

Charting guidelines
Charting guidelines

  • Be precise

  • Stick to the facts

  • Sign your name after each entry

  • SOAP format – focuses on specific problems

  • AIR, DAR, PIE, DIE formats – focus on nursing interventions and client response

  • Prioritize the client problems

Part two complete health history
Part Two: Complete Health History

  • Biographical Data

  • Reasons for Seeking Health Care

  • History of Present Health Concern

  • Past Health History

  • Family Health History

Lifestyle and health practices profile
Lifestyle and Health Practices Profile

  • Description of Typical Day

  • Nutrition and Weight Management

  • Activity Level and Exercise

  • Sleep and Rest

  • Medication and Substance Use

  • Self-Concept

  • Self-Care Responsibilities

NANDA Nursing Diagnosis List

Activity IntoleranceActivity Intolerance, Risk forAirway Clearance, IneffectiveAnxietyAnxiety, DeathAspiration, Risk forAttachment, Parent/Infant/Child, Risk for ImpairedAutonomic DysreflexiaAutonomic Dysreflexia, Risk for

Blood Glucose, Risk for UnstableBody Image, DisturbedBody Temperature: Imbalanced, Risk forBowel IncontinenceBreastfeeding, EffectiveBreastfeeding, IneffectiveBreastfeeding, InterruptedBreathing Pattern, Ineffective

Cardiac Output, DecreasedCaregiver Role StrainCaregiver Role Strain, Risk forComfort, Readiness for EnhancedCommunication: Impaired, VerbalCommunication, Readiness for EnhancedConfusion, AcuteConfusion, Acute, Risk forConfusion, ChronicConstipationConstipation, PerceivedConstipation, Risk forContaminationContamination, Risk forCoping: Community, IneffectiveCoping: Community, Readiness for EnhancedCoping, DefensiveCoping: Family, CompromisedCoping: Family, DisabledCoping: Family, Readiness for EnhancedCoping (Individual), Readiness for EnhancedCoping, IneffectiveDecisional Conflict

Decision Making, Readiness for EnhancedDenial, IneffectiveDentition, ImpairedDevelopment: Delayed, Risk forDiarrheaDisuse Syndrome, Risk forDiversional Activity, Deficient

Energy Field, DisturbedEnvironmental Interpretation Syndrome, Impaired

Failure to Thrive, AdultFalls, Risk forFamily Processes, Dysfunctional: AlcoholismFamily Processes, InterruptedFamily Processes, Readiness for EnhancedFatigueFearFluid Balance, Readiness for EnhancedFluid Volume, DeficientFluid Volume, Deficient, Risk forFluid Volume, ExcessFluid Volume, Imbalanced, Risk for

Gas Exchange, ImpairedGrievingGrieving, ComplicatedGrieving, Risk for ComplicatedGrowth, Disproportionate, Risk forGrowth and Development, Delayed

Health Behavior, Risk-ProneHealth Maintenance, IneffectiveHealth-Seeking Behaviors (Specify)Home Maintenance, ImpairedHope, Readiness for EnhancedHopelessnessHuman Dignity, Risk for CompromisedHyperthermiaHypothermia

Immunization Status, Readiness for Enhanced

Infant Behavior, Disorganizednfant Behavior: Disorganized, Risk forInfant Behavior: Organized, Readiness for EnhancedInfant Feeding Pattern, IneffectiveInfection, Risk forInjury, Risk forInsomniaIntracranial Adaptive Capacity, Decreased

Knowledge, Deficient (Specify)Knowledge (Specify), Readiness for Enhanced

Latex Allergy ResponseLatex Allergy Response, Risk forLiver Function, Impaired, Risk forLoneliness, Risk for

Memory, ImpairedMobility: Bed, ImpairedMobility: Physical, ImpairedMobility: Wheelchair, Impaired Moral Distress

NauseaNeurovascular Dysfunction: Peripheral, Risk forNoncompliance (Specify)Nutrition, Imbalanced: Less than Body RequirementsNutrition, Imbalanced: More than Body RequirementsNutrition, Imbalanced: More than Body Requirements, Risk forNutrition, Readiness for Enhanced

Oral Mucous Membrane, Impaired

Pain, AcutePain, ChronicParenting, ImpairedParenting, Readiness for EnhancedParenting, Risk for ImpairedPerioperative Positioning Injury, Risk forPersonal Identity, DisturbedPoisoning, Risk forPost-Trauma SyndromePost-Trauma Syndrome, Risk forPower, Readiness for EnhancedPowerlessnessPowerlessness, Risk forProtection, Ineffective

Rape-Trauma SyndromeRape-Trauma Syndrome: Compound ReactionRape-Trauma Syndrome: Silent Reaction

Religiosity, ImpairedReligiosity, Readiness for EnhancedReligiosity, Risk for ImpairedRelocation Stress SyndromeRelocation Stress Syndrome, Risk forRole Conflict, ParentalRole Performance, Ineffective

Sedentary LifestyleSelf-Care, Readiness for EnhancedSelf-Care Deficit: Bathing/HygieneSelf-Care Deficit: Dressing/GroomingSelf-Care Deficit: Feeding Self-Care Deficit: ToiletingSelf-Concept, Readiness for EnhancedSelf-Esteem, Chronic LowSelf-Esteem, Situational LowSelf-Esteem, Risk for Situational LowSelf-MutilationSelf-Mutilation, Risk for

Sensory Perception, Disturbed

(Specify: Auditory,Gustatory, Kinesthetic, Olfactory Tactile,Visual)

Sexual DysfunctionSexuality Pattern, IneffectiveSkin Integrity, ImpairedSkin Integrity, Risk for ImpairedSleep DeprivationSleep, Readiness for EnhancedSocial Interaction, ImpairedSocial IsolationSorrow, ChronicSpiritual DistressSpiritual Distress, Risk forSpiritual Well-Being, Readiness for EnhancedSpontaneous Ventilation, ImpairedStress, OverloadSudden Infant Death Syndrome, Risk forSuffocation, Risk for

Suicide, Risk forSurgical Recovery, DelayedSwallowing, Impaired

Therapeutic Regimen Management: Community,IneffectiveTherapeutic Regimen Management, EffectiveTherapeutic Regimen Management: Family,IneffectiveTherapeutic Regimen Management, IneffectiveTherapeutic Regimen Management, Readiness for EnhancedThermoregulation, IneffectiveThought Processes, DisturbedTissue Integrity, Impaired

Tissue Perfusion, Ineffective (Specify: Cerebral,Cardiopulmonary, Gastrointestinal, Renal)

Tissue Perfusion, Ineffective, PeripheralTransfer Ability, ImpairedTrauma, Risk for

Unilateral NeglectUrinary Elimination, ImpairedUrinary Elimination, Readiness for EnhancedUrinary Incontinence, FunctionalUrinary Incontinence, OverflowUrinary Incontinence, ReflexUrinary Incontinence, StressUrinary Incontinence, TotalUrinary Incontinence, UrgeUrinary Incontinence, Risk for Urge Urinary Retention

Ventilatory Weaning Response, DysfunctionalViolence: Other-Directed, Risk forViolence: Self-Directed, Risk for

Walking, ImpairedWandering

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