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Physical Fitness Assessment. Fitness Evaluation. When assessing physical fitness you must also assess: Muscle endurance Flexibility Cardiovascular Endurance Body Composition Special Considerations

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Physical Fitness Assessment

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fitness evaluation
Fitness Evaluation
  • When assessing physical fitness you must also assess:
    • Muscle endurance
    • Flexibility
    • Cardiovascular Endurance
    • Body Composition
    • Special Considerations
  • Without a baseline measurement, it is impossible to eval the effectiveness of a client’s exercise program
fitness evaluation1
Fitness Evaluation
  • Competitive Fitness: the strength, endurance, and mental well-being required to be competitive in sports activities
  • General Fitness: the ability to perform daily activities with vitality and energy , to withstand stress without undue fatigue, and to maintain physical health without medical intervention
fitness evaluation2
Fitness Evaluation
  • Athlete’s fitness is typically more physically demanding than those of the general public
  • High BP is a major condition to watch for when performing a fitness eval
muscular endurance evaluations
Muscular Endurance Evaluations
  • Repetitions: the completion of designated movement through the entire ROM
  • Muscle Contraction: the tensioning of the muscle during shortening (concentric), lengthening (eccentric), or no motion (isometric)
muscular endurance evaluations1
Muscular Endurance Evaluations
  • Bent-Leg Sit-Ups
    • Measure the muscular endurance of the abdominal muscles
    • Poor abs can contribute to low back pain
    • Less stress on the back than straight-leg sit-up
    • Caution clients to not overstrain or hold breath
    • Record number completed in 1 minute
muscular endurance evaluations2
Muscular Endurance Evaluations
  • Push-Ups
    • Measures upper body endurance
    • Allows ATC or SCS to eval muscular endurance in the arms, chest, and trunk
    • Should be smooth and without jerky movements
    • Caution clients to not overstrain or hold breath
    • Record number completed after 1 minute
  • Trunk: the torso; area of the body on either side of and including, the spine, but excluding the arms and legs
muscular endurance evaluations3
Muscular Endurance Evaluations
  • Modified Push-Ups
    • Women do not develop their upper body as much as men
    • Record number completed within 1 minute
muscular endurance evaluation
Muscular Endurance Evaluation
  • Bench Jump or Step
    • Used to determine the muscle endurance of the lower extremities
    • Performed by jumping from ground level to the top of a bench (16 in) and back down again
    • Record number done in 1 minute
flexibility evaluation
Flexibility Evaluation
  • Flexibility: the ability to stretch a muscle through its full ROM w/o pain or muscle tearing
  • ROM: the maximum range through which a joint can move
  • Measure the flexibility of the trunk, bc the rest of the body is in similar condition
flexibility evaluation1
Flexibility Evaluation
  • Sit and Reach (Trunk Flexion)
    • Measures the amount of forward trunk flexion as well as the amount of flexibility in the hamstrings
  • Hamstrings: the muscles on the posterior aspects of the femur
flexibility evaluations
Flexibility Evaluations
  • Back Bend (Trunk Extension)
    • Helps the ATC eval the ability fo the abs and spine to extend backward
    • Clients with back problems should not attempt this test
flexibility evaluations1
Flexibility Evaluations
  • Zipper Test
    • Place one arm over the shoulder and one arm under
    • Reach towards the opposite hands
    • Measure the distance between middle fingers
evaluating cardiovascular endurance
Evaluating Cardiovascular Endurance
  • Resting Heart Rate: the number of times the heart beats in 1 minute when no physical activity is taking place
  • Recovery Heart Rate: the number of times the heart beats in 1 minute, 60 seconds after completion of 3 or more minutes of exercise
evaluating cardiovascular endurance1
Evaluating Cardiovascular Endurance
  • Optimum muscular activity is possible only when the heart, blood vessels, and lungs are functioning effectively.
evaluating cardiovascular endurance2
Evaluating Cardiovascular Endurance
  • Measuring HR
    • AKA pulse
    • Determined by counting the number of heartbeats per minute
    • Count the number of beats for 30 seconds and multiply by 2
    • During exercise count beats for 10 seconds and multiply by 6
evaluating cardiovascular endurance3
Evaluating Cardiovascular Endurance
  • 2 common places on the body used for checking pulse
    • Radial Artery (wrist)
    • Carotid Artery (neck)
      • Never check both carotid arteries at the same time
      • Client will lose consciousness due to restricted blood flow to the brain
  • Never check pulse with the thumb
evaluating cardiovascular endurance4
Evaluating Cardiovascular Endurance
  • Determining the Resting Heart Rate
    • Provides a baseline to compare the client’s physical fitness level
    • Should be taken while sitting quietly
    • Never taken during or immediately after activity
    • Best time: morning after wakening
    • Take HR 3 days in a row and avg the numbers
    • Adults: 60-100 bpm (beats per minute)
    • Conditioned Athletes: 40-60 bpm
    • If over 100 bpm: poor condition
evaluating cardiovascular endurance5
Evaluating Cardiovascular Endurance
  • Pulse Recovery Step Test
    • AKA Kasch pulse recovery test
    • AKA 3-minute step test
    • measures a persons recovery HR following 3 minutes of exercise
    • 12 in-high-step
    • A metronome device should be set at 96 counts per minute
    • Wait 60 seconds after completion to take HR
body composition
Body Composition
  • Lean Body Weight: the weight of a body after the fat weight has been subtracted
    • Measure the amount of body fat at selected points on the body using a skinfold caliper
    • Skinfold Caliper: a plier-like instrument used to measure thickness
body composition1
Body Composition
  • Fat Weight: the weight of a body after the lean body weight has been subtracted; the weight of the adipose tissue of the body
    • Body Weight x % Body Fat= Fat Weight
body composition2
Body Composition
  • Lean Body Weight
        • Body Weight – Fat Weight = Lean Body Weight (LBW)
body composition3
Body Composition
  • Recommended Ranges of Body Fat
    • It is difficult
    • Varies from person to person
    • Depends on age, gender, hereditary, and lifestyle
    • A person’s ideal % body fat is the amount of fat at which that person performs and feels best
    • Athletes: depends on the sport being played
body composition4
Body Composition
  • Less body fat is not always better
  • A certain amount of body fat is necessary for proper protection of the internal organs
  • Essential Body Fat: the minimum amount of body fat necessary for the proper protection of internal organs
  • Different for males and females
  • Male EBF: 3%
  • Female EBF: 12%
body composition and athletes
Body Composition and Athletes
  • Parallel: extending in the same direction and remaining separated by the same distance along the entire length, never crossing paths
  • Important for athletes to make sure that their body fat does not fall below the low end of the range recommended for their sport.
body composition and athletes1
Body Composition and Athletes
  • Determining Muscle Gain or Loss
    • Muscle tissue is a part of the lean body weight
    • Changes in lean body mass are going to be mainly caused by changes in the amount of muscle tissue
  • Essential to measuring individual progress in both athletic and nonathletic settings
  • Progress info can be recorded on a progress record or tracked on a computer
  • Progress is measured by improvement or in some cases by maintenance
special consideration
Special Consideration
  • Everyone is different
  • Always consider the unique physical requirements of the person’s daily activities
    • Ex: career, lifestyle, physiological
  • Fitness potential can be influenced by a varied of factors that may be beyond a person’s control or determined by profession.
musculoskeletal capabilities and limitations
Musculoskeletal Capabilities and Limitations
  • It is not realistic to hold everyone to the same standards of fitness
  • Clients will look elsewhere for guidance if there HC providers do not take this into consideration.
  • Limitations in strength, flexibility, and cardio can result from injuries or congenital conditions
  • Congenital: a condition present at birth
musculoskeletal capabilities and limitations1
Musculoskeletal Capabilities and Limitations
  • Soft tissue injuries
  • Surgeries
  • Illnesses
  • Amputations
  • Neural Damage
  • Age
other physical and medical conditions
Other Physical and Medical Conditions
  • Everyone should have a physical exam performed by a physician to determine if they have any preexisting conditions
  • Clients with high blood pressure (hypertension) or low blood pressure (hypotension) require special considerations in their physical fitness assessments
  • Normal BP is 120/80
  • Hypertension can exert extreme pressure on blood vessels.
  • If the pressure gets too high, there is a danger of rupturing vital blood vessels, particularly those of the brain or heart.
other physical and medical conditions1
Other Physical and Medical Conditions
  • Do not even attempt to assess a client with abnormal blood pressure until the client has a physical exam and begins appropriate intervention
  • The physician can then recommend an appropriate level of exertion for that individual
  • Pregnancy is another condition that requires consideration
  • Because of the location of the fetus, pregnant women should not participate in activities such as sit-ups that put excessive strain on the abs
  • Push-ups may become impossible as well
other physical and medical conditions2
Other Physical and Medical Conditions
  • Certain activities may also be contraindicated for pregnant women.
  • A physician should always determine which activities are appropriate for a given pregnant woman before any testing takes place