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Chapter 4. The Processor. Introduction. §4.1 Introduction. CPU performance factors Instruction count Determined by ISA and compiler CPI and Cycle time Determined by CPU hardware We will examine two MIPS implementations A simplified version A more realistic pipelined version

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Chapter 4


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    1. Chapter 4 The Processor

    2. Introduction §4.1 Introduction EET 4250: Microcomputer Architecture • CPU performance factors • Instruction count • Determined by ISA and compiler • CPI and Cycle time • Determined by CPU hardware • We will examine two MIPS implementations • A simplified version • A more realistic pipelined version • Simple subset, shows most aspects • Memory reference: lw, sw • Arithmetic/logical: add, sub, and, or, slt • Control transfer: beq, j

    3. Instruction Execution EET 4250: Microcomputer Architecture • PC  instruction memory, fetch instruction • Register numbers register file, read registers • Depending on instruction class • Use ALU to calculate • Arithmetic result • Memory address for load/store • Branch target address • Access data memory for load/store • PC  target address or PC + 4

    4. CPU Overview EET 4250: Microcomputer Architecture

    5. Multiplexers • Can’t just join wires together • Use multiplexers EET 4250: Microcomputer Architecture

    6. Control EET 4250: Microcomputer Architecture

    7. Logic Design Basics §4.2 Logic Design Conventions EET 4250: Microcomputer Architecture • Information encoded in binary • Low voltage = 0, High voltage = 1 • One wire per bit • Multi-bit data encoded on multi-wire buses • Combinational element • Operate on data • Output is a function of input • State (sequential) elements • Store information

    8. A Y B A A Mux I0 Y + Y Y I1 ALU B B S F Combinational Elements • Adder • Y = A + B • Arithmetic/Logic Unit • Y = F(A, B) • Multiplexer • Y = S ? I1 : I0 EET 4250: Microcomputer Architecture • AND-gate • Y = A & B

    9. D Q Clk Clk D Q Sequential Elements EET 4250: Microcomputer Architecture • Register: stores data in a circuit • Uses a clock signal to determine when to update the stored value • Edge-triggered: update when Clk changes from 0 to 1

    10. Clk D Q Write Write D Clk Q Sequential Elements EET 4250: Microcomputer Architecture • Register with write control • Only updates on clock edge when write control input is 1 • Used when stored value is required later

    11. Clocking Methodology EET 4250: Microcomputer Architecture • Combinational logic transforms data during clock cycles • Between clock edges • Input from state elements, output to state element • Longest delay determines clock period

    12. Building a Datapath • Datapath • Elements that process data and addressesin the CPU • Registers, ALUs, mux’s, memories, … • We will build a MIPS datapath incrementally • Refining the overview design §4.3 Building a Datapath EET 4250: Microcomputer Architecture

    13. Creating a Single Datapath from the Parts • Assemble the datapath segments and add control lines and multiplexors as needed • Single cycle design – fetch, decode and execute each instructions in one clock cycle • no datapath resource can be used more than once per instruction, so some must be duplicated (e.g., separate Instruction Memory and Data Memory, several adders) • multiplexors needed at the input of shared elements with control lines to do the selection • write signals to control writing to the Register File and Data Memory • Cycle time is determined by length of the longest path

    14. Instruction Fetch Increment by 4 for next instruction 32-bit register EET 4250: Microcomputer Architecture

    15. R-Format Instructions • Read two register operands • Perform arithmetic/logical operation • Write register result EET 4250: Microcomputer Architecture

    16. Load/Store Instructions • Read register operands • Calculate address using 16-bit offset • Use ALU, but sign-extend offset • Load: Read memory and update register • Store: Write register value to memory EET 4250: Microcomputer Architecture

    17. Branch Instructions • Read register operands • Compare operands • Use ALU, subtract and check Zero output • Calculate target address • Sign-extend displacement • Shift left 2 places (word displacement) • Add to PC + 4 • Already calculated by instruction fetch EET 4250: Microcomputer Architecture

    18. Branch Instructions Justre-routes wires Sign-bit wire replicated EET 4250: Microcomputer Architecture

    19. Branch Addressing – Absolute 1st Instruction 2nd Instruction EET 4250: Microcomputer Architecture • Simplified branch ADDR field • If immediate field is 3 bits instead of 16 • beq $t0, $t1, ADDR • How do we maximize how big ADDR can be? • Case 1: ADDR is an absolute address • Limit to 23 = 8 addresses in program! • Only 2 instructions (at address 0 & 4)

    20. Branch Addressing – Byte Offset 1st Instr. Any of the 232 addresses 2nd Instr. EET 4250: Microcomputer Architecture • Simplified branch ADDR field • If immediate field is 3 bits instead of 16 • Case 2: ADDR is a byte-offset from PC • PC is 32 bits = 232 addresses • Branch can go PC ± 22 bytes = PC ± 4 bytes = PC ± 1 instructions!!

    21. Branch Addressing – Word Offset EET 4250: Microcomputer Architecture • Simplified branch ADDR field • If immediate field is 3 bits instead of 16 • Case 3: ADDR is a word-offset from PC • PC is 32 bits = 232 addresses • Branch can go PC ± 22 words = PC ± 16 bytes = PC ± 4 instructions!!

    22. Branch Instructions Justre-routes wires Sign-bit wire replicated EET 4250: Microcomputer Architecture

    23. Composing the Elements • First-cut data path does an instruction in one clock cycle • Each datapath element can only do one function at a time • Hence, we need separate instruction and data memories • Use multiplexers where alternate data sources are used for different instructions EET 4250: Microcomputer Architecture

    24. R-Type/Load/Store Datapath EET 4250: Microcomputer Architecture

    25. Full Datapath EET 4250: Microcomputer Architecture

    26. 0 4 35 or 43 rs rs rs rt rt rt rd address address shamt funct 31:26 31:26 31:26 25:21 25:21 25:21 20:16 20:16 20:16 15:11 10:6 15:0 15:0 5:0 The Main Control Unit • Control signals derived from instruction R-type Load/Store Branch opcode always read read, except for load write for R-type and load sign-extend and add EET 4250: Microcomputer Architecture

    27. ALU Control • ALU used for • Load/Store: F = add • Branch: F = subtract • R-type: F depends on funct field §4.4 A Simple Implementation Scheme EET 4250: Microcomputer Architecture

    28. ALU Control • Assume 2-bit ALUOp derived from opcode • Combinational logic derives ALU control EET 4250: Microcomputer Architecture

    29. Datapath With Control EET 4250: Microcomputer Architecture

    30. Add 4 Fetch PC = PC+4 Instruction Memory Exec Decode Read Address PC Instruction Fetching Instructions • Fetching instructions involves • reading the instruction from the Instruction Memory • updating the PC value to be the address of the next (sequential) instruction • PC is updated every clock cycle, so it does not need an explicit write control signal just a clock signal • Reading from the Instruction Memory is a combinational activity, so it doesn’t need an explicit read control signal

    31. Fetch PC = PC+4 Exec Decode Read Addr 1 Read Data 1 Register File Read Addr 2 Write Addr Read Data 2 Write Data Decoding Instructions • Decoding instructions involves • sending the fetched instruction’s opcode and function field bits to the control unit Control Unit Instruction • reading two values from the Register File • Register File addresses are contained in the instruction

    32. 31 25 20 15 10 5 0 R-type: op rs rt rd shamt funct RegWrite ALU control Fetch PC = PC+4 Read Addr 1 Read Data 1 Register File Read Addr 2 overflow Instruction zero Exec Decode ALU Write Addr Read Data 2 Write Data Executing R Format Operations • R format operations (add, sub, slt, and, or) • perform operation (op and funct) on values in rs and rt • store the result back into the Register File (into location rd) • Note that Register File is not written every cycle (e.g. sw), so we need an explicit write control signal for the Register File

    33. R-type Instruction Data/Control Flow 0 Add Add 1 4 Shift left 2 PCSrc ALUOp Branch MemRead Instr[31-26] Control Unit MemtoReg MemWrite ALUSrc RegWrite RegDst ovf Instr[25-21] Read Addr 1 Instruction Memory Read Data 1 Address Register File Instr[20-16] zero Read Addr 2 Data Memory Read Address PC Instr[31-0] 0 Read Data 1 ALU Write Addr Read Data 2 0 1 Write Data 0 Instr[15 -11] Write Data 1 Instr[15-0] Sign Extend ALU control 16 32 Instr[5-0]

    34. RegWrite ALU control MemWrite overflow zero Read Addr 1 Read Data 1 Address Register File Read Addr 2 Instruction Data Memory Read Data ALU Write Addr Read Data 2 Write Data Write Data MemRead Sign Extend 16 32 Executing Load and Store Operations • Load and store operations involves • compute memory address by adding the base register (read from the Register File during decode) to the 16-bit signed-extended offset field in the instruction • store value (read from the Register File during decode) written to the Data Memory • load value, read from the Data Memory, written to the Register File

    35. Load Word Instruction Data/Control Flow 0 Add Add 1 4 Shift left 2 PCSrc ALUOp Branch MemRead Instr[31-26] Control Unit MemtoReg MemWrite ALUSrc RegWrite RegDst ovf Instr[25-21] Read Addr 1 Instruction Memory Read Data 1 Address Register File Instr[20-16] zero Read Addr 2 Data Memory Read Address PC Instr[31-0] 0 Read Data 1 ALU Write Addr Read Data 2 0 1 Write Data 0 Instr[15 -11] Write Data 1 Instr[15-0] Sign Extend ALU control 16 32 Instr[5-0]

    36. Add RegWrite ALUSrc ALU control MemWrite MemtoReg 4 ovf zero Read Addr 1 Instruction Memory Read Data 1 Address Register File Read Addr 2 Data Memory Read Address PC Instruction Read Data ALU Write Addr Read Data 2 Write Data Write Data MemRead Sign Extend 16 32 Fetch, R, and Memory Access Portions

    37. Branch-on-Equal Instruction EET 4250: Microcomputer Architecture

    38. Executing Branch Operations • Branch operations involves • compare the operands read from the Register File during decode for equality (zero ALU output) • compute the branch target address by adding the updated PC to the 16-bit signed-extended offset field in the instr Branch target address Add Add 4 Shift left 2 ALU control PC zero (to branch control logic) Read Addr 1 Read Data 1 Register File Read Addr 2 Instruction ALU Write Addr Read Data 2 Write Data Sign Extend 16 32

    39. Branch Instruction Data/Control Flow 0 Add Add 1 4 Shift left 2 PCSrc ALUOp Branch MemRead Instr[31-26] Control Unit MemtoReg MemWrite ALUSrc RegWrite RegDst ovf Instr[25-21] Read Addr 1 Instruction Memory Read Data 1 Address Register File Instr[20-16] zero Read Addr 2 Data Memory Read Address PC Instr[31-0] 0 Read Data 1 ALU Write Addr Read Data 2 0 1 Write Data 0 Instr[15 -11] Write Data 1 Instr[15-0] Sign Extend ALU control 16 32 Instr[5-0]

    40. Single Cycle Datapath with Control Unit 0 Add Add 1 4 Shift left 2 PCSrc ALUOp Branch MemRead Instr[31-26] Control Unit MemtoReg MemWrite ALUSrc RegWrite RegDst ovf Instr[25-21] Read Addr 1 Instruction Memory Read Data 1 Address Register File Instr[20-16] zero Read Addr 2 Data Memory Read Address PC Instr[31-0] 0 Read Data 1 ALU Write Addr Read Data 2 0 1 Write Data 0 Instr[15 -11] Write Data 1 Instr[15-0] Sign Extend ALU control 16 32 Instr[5-0]

    41. 2 address 31:26 25:0 Implementing Jumps • Jump uses word address • Update PC with concatenation of • Top 4 bits of old PC • 26-bit jump address • 00 • Need an extra control signal decoded from opcode Jump EET 4250: Microcomputer Architecture

    42. Adding the Jump Operation Instr[25-0] 1 Shift left 2 28 32 26 0 PC+4[31-28] 0 Add Add 1 4 Shift left 2 PCSrc Jump ALUOp Branch MemRead Instr[31-26] Control Unit MemtoReg MemWrite ALUSrc RegWrite RegDst ovf Instr[25-21] Read Addr 1 Instruction Memory Read Data 1 Address Register File Instr[20-16] zero Read Addr 2 Data Memory Read Address PC Instr[31-0] 0 Read Data 1 ALU Write Addr Read Data 2 0 1 Write Data 0 Instr[15 -11] Write Data 1 Instr[15-0] Sign Extend ALU control 16 32 Instr[5-0]

    43. Executing Jump Operations • Jump operation involves • replace the lower 28 bits of the PC with the lower 26 bits of the fetched instruction shifted left by 2 bits Add 4 4 Jump address Instruction Memory Shift left 2 28 Read Address PC Instruction 26

    44. Datapath With Jumps Added EET 4250: Microcomputer Architecture

    45. Performance Issues • Longest delay determines clock period • Critical path: load instruction • Instruction memory  register file  ALU  data memory  register file • Not feasible to vary period for different instructions • Violates design principle • Making the common case fast • We will improve performance by pipelining EET 4250: Microcomputer Architecture

    46. Instruction Critical Paths • What is the clock cycle time assuming negligible delays for muxes, control unit, sign extend, PC access, shift left 2, wires, setup and hold times except: • Instruction and Data Memory (200 ps) • ALU and adders (200 ps) • Register File access (reads or writes) (100 ps)

    47. Pipelining Analogy • Pipelined laundry: overlapping execution • Parallelism improves performance §4.5 An Overview of Pipelining EET 4250: Microcomputer Architecture

    48. MIPS Pipeline • Five stages, one step per stage • IF: Instruction fetch from memory • ID: Instruction decode & register read • EX: Execute operation or calculate address • MEM: Access memory operand • WB: Write result back to register EET 4250: Microcomputer Architecture

    49. Pipeline Performance • Assume time for stages is • 100ps for register read or write • 200ps for other stages • Compare pipelined datapath with single-cycle datapath EET 4250: Microcomputer Architecture

    50. Pipeline Performance Single-cycle (Tc= 800ps) Pipelined (Tc= 200ps) EET 4250: Microcomputer Architecture